Мировые тенденции развития глобальных цепочек создания добавленной стоимости и участие в них России
The article presents major theoretical approaches to the “Global Value Chains” (GVC) concept and attempts to analyse their role in the modern world economy. It is stressed therefore, that increasing political and economic role of GVCs attracts progressively more attention of national governments and international institutions alike (including the Group of Twenty, the OECD, the WTO, the UNCTAD and the World Bank). In order to embrace major international trends in the field of GVCs and to outline the specific characteristics of Russia’s participation therein the authors have used the data from the jointly prepared by the OECD and the WTO “Trade in Value Added” (TiVA) database. Conducted analysis leads us to the point, that current Russia’s participation in GVCs does not allow the country to fulfil its economic potential to the maximum, as it participates predominantly in forward GVC linkages, that hinder realisation of Russia’s long-term socio-economic and scientific-technological and innovation development goals. Therefore, factors facilitating and restraining Russia’s participation in GVCs were assessed and corresponding recommendations as to the horizontal government policy measures and measures aimed at increasing the efficiency of Russia’s long-term strategy of participation in GVCs were formulated.
The article contains the analysis of the development trends in foreign corporate reporting, and on the authors' opinion, Corporate Social Responsibility reflected in the corporate reporting now goes mainstream worldwide. Such integrated reporting, including financial and non-financial component, is now in the focus of interest and therefore requires standardization and significant enhancements in the area of relevance and reliability. This calls for creation of integrated reporting framework, making mandatory reporting on these issues not only desirable but inevitable. This article contains the most recent definitions of corporate social responsibility, reporting on sustainable development and responsible investor, who factors the reporting data in the investment decision making. Authors perform an analysis of recent activities of the international and intergovernmental organizations involved in the process of creating regulatory regime of sustainability and integrated reporting, as well as recently published in 2010 research studies and reports by intergovernmental organizations as well as independent consultants.
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.