Микрофинансирование, как инновационный инструмент поддержки сельских предпринимателей стран БРИКС
The analysis of the characteristics of the BRICS countries. It is shown that the role of the BRICS in the global economy has been constantly increasing, and the total GDP of the BRICS countries exceeded the total GDP of the euro area. The rate of population growth in the BRICS countries remain very high, and the proportion of the BRICS in the global population is still significantly higher than their share of world GDP. In BRICS growing number of very large companies, including the ability to invest in large-scale R & D and exercise contribute to the innovative development of the country. At the same time shown in many respects the situation in the various countries of the BRICS is not the same or similar.
BRICS countries’ positions in the global economy are growing. Nevertheless in BRICS countries remain fragmented, and actions in the sphere of innovation policies – incoherent. Governments of these countries have already taken this in consideration and started to stimulate the shift towards the intensive growth or towards innovation-driven economy. Especially successful in performing this task is China.
The BRICS countries have come a long way in terms of science and related fields, but there is still much that the group could do concerning multilateral cooperation to encourage innovation and address its members’ common challenges.
The article is dedicated to the increasing role of BRICS in post-crisis global transformations. It deals with the issue of gradual rooting of BRICS in the system of the international relations. A special attention is given to the potentialities of Russia in BRICS.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.