Особенности метафоризации в научном тексте (на материале научной статьи М. Блэка “Metaphor” на английском языке)
The research is aimed at studying metaphorization in the scientific text representing different stages of the cognitive-communicative situation development: problem formulating, hypothesis making, substuntiating and inference drawing. Metaphorization is regarded as the author's creative act in a particular subject field. An attempt is made to analize metaphorical terms, to describe metaphorical models and the author's concept formation.
The paper presents the results of research aimed at revealing individual means of metaphoric conceptualization of aging and old age resorted to by ordinary speakers of contemporary American English. The interpretation of the existential experience of aging is a cognitive process of high complexity, which stems both from subjective factors and a wide variability of conceptual landmarks reflected and reinforced in discursive practices. The heterogeneity of the discourse of aging is accounted for by a complex dynamics of demographic, economic, political, social and other processes that shape significantly differing interpretations of old age and its axiological assessment and contribute to the simultaneous circulation of a wide range of genetically unrelated metaphors. Native speakers master the metaphorical repertoire offered by their culture, adapt it to their cognitive needs and are potentially capable of creating their own metaphorical mappings. The methodological basis of the present research is the theory of metaphorical creativity proposed by Z. Kövecses and the metaphoric landscape theory advanced by J. Lawley and P. Tompkins. The paper describes the experiment conducted on Survey Monkey among native speakers of American English aged 40-80+. The respondents were requested to answer 10 open-ended questions, whose construction met two basic criteria: 1) the presence of a simile marker aimed at preventing the respondents from using simple predicative constructions, and 2) the use of ‘clean language’ (Lawley & Tompkins), which is supposed to prevent the effect of semantic priming. 72 respondents, who took part in the survey, presented 720 answers, 357 (49,58 per cent) of which were identified as metaphorical. The analysis revealed the presence of a considerable number of culturally licensed metaphorical forms, such as phytonymic images (wilting flower, aging tree, dried fruit), alcoholic and gastronomic metaphors (aged wine / cheese), various mechanical imagery (slowing down clock, broken automobile), variations of LIFE IS A JOURNEY metaphor and others. Analysis shows, however, that even when resorting to the traditional conceptual format, respondents are capable of creatively playing with the source domain discovering hidden metaphorical possibilities (aging is ‘driving on empty’, ‘a pothole on the life road’) and offering non-standard verbal representations (aging is a ‘trip’). A particularly telling example of metaphorical creativity is the choice of a source domain when conceptualizing the traditional attributes of old age. Thus, wisdom traditionally associated with old age is presented as a book (a mystery novel, an encyclopedia, a library, etc.), a computer hard drive, the Google search engine, a treasure and postgraduate education. Of special interest are unique creative metaphors, which include, among others, such forms as: old age is ‘Groundhog Day in Hell’, ‘becoming the Tin Man’, and ‘flat soda’. The analysis of answers presented by individual respondents shows that the typical configuration of the metaphorical landscape of aging and old age includes one or two central metaphors presented in slightly differing conceptual and verbal forms and a number of genetically different isolated metaphors.
The goals of research on conceptual metaphor in discourse are at present remarkably multifaceted, from describing specific social, pragmatic, rhetorical, aesthetic, and discursive functions in real discourse data, through assessing metaphor entrenchment in the cultural and conceptual system, to identification methods as well as criteria for metaphorical mapping description and classification. The volume the reader is about to explore provides a broad panorama of perspectives tackling diverse aspects of metaphor analysis, including a wide range of topics such as the levels of source domain knowledge configuration, new Metaphor analysis in discourse. Introduction 7 target domain knowledge, conscious usage, metaphor identification procedures, communicative functions, linguistic metaphor, visual modes of metaphorical expression, corpus processing, trans-modal metaphor, among others. One of the assets of this collective work consists in showing how the scrutiny of metaphorical connections in multimodal discourse reveals the conceptual nature of metaphorical thinking. The book is organized in three parts, each one focussing on certain aspects of metaphor analysis in discourse. The first part emphasizes the description and characterization of metaphorical knowledge. The chapters offer a view on knowledge configurations like image schemas, frames, scenarios and domains that configure particular kinds of discourse and knowledge. The second part puts the stress on communicative aspects, particularly on the analysis of author/speaker intentionality and the tools to measure intention and effect in metaphor usage. Finally, the third block in the volume delves into the intricacies of disclosing metaphorical codes in non-linguistic modes of semiosis, be it cartoons, film, or other visual media.
In this chapter, I argue that the Durkheimian theory of the sacred is a crucial yet not fully recognized resource for cognitive sociology. It contains not only a theory of culture (which is acknowledged in contemporary sociology), but also a vision of culture-cognition relations. Thus, Durkheimian cultural sociology allows us to understand the crucial role the sacred/profane opposition plays in structuring culture, perception and thought. Based on a number of theories, I also show how another opposition – between the pure and impure modes of the sacred, allows us to explain dynamic features of the sacred and eventually provides a basic model of social change. While explicating this vision and resultant opportunities for sociological analysis I also criticize ‘cognition apart from culture’ approaches established within cognitive sociology. I argue, thus, that culture not only participates in cognition but is an intrinsic ingredient of the human mind. Culture is not a chaotic and fragmented set of elements, as some sociologists imply to a greater or lesser degree, but a system; and as such it is an inner environment for human thought and social action. This system, however, is governed not by formal logic, as some critics of the autonomy of culture presuppose, but by concrete configurations of emotionally-charged categories, created and re-created in social interactions.
The paper addresses metaphor as a cognitive-semantic device which is able to reveal intuitive mechanisms of the thinking process, thus filling the gaps in the sphere of logically objective human knowledge and opening the possibility to describe abstract concepts of the human mind in terms. This paper substantiates the principal possibility of conceptual modeling of the metaphorization process and describes its baseline algorithm, identifies complex metaphors and establishes the cognitive semantic features of their functioning. The main conclusion of the reasoning confirms the hypothesis that different image schemes have different strength of heuristic potential, which determines the fullness of metaphorical descriptions of concepts.
This article presents a theoretical framework for the author’s experimental work in contemporary poetry, which has received a term cognitive poetry. In contrast to cognitive poetics, which applies the principles of cognitive psychology to interpret poetic texts, cognitive poetry applies these principles to produce poetic texts. The theoretical considerations of cognitive poetry are based on the assumption that one of the major purposes of creative work is to elicit aesthetical reaction in the beholder. The aesthetical reaction to the poetic texts could be achieved via their satiation with multiple meanings presented through multiple sensory modalities. Cognitive poetry employs techniques developed in cognitive psychology to explicitly address cognitive processes underlying construction of multiple conceptual planes. The following techniques are discussed: priming, Stroop effect, multimodal and multilingual presentations. The applications of these techniques are illustrated with examples of poetic texts produced by the author.
The paper examines the properties of heavy as a perceptual concept, based on evidence from 11 languages. We demonstrate that the semantics of this concept is heterogeneous; lexemes of this field can be used in situations of at least three types: Lifting, Shifting and Weighing. These situations are either lexicalised as separate words or they converge in a single lexeme in various combinations following certain strategies. We also argue that different metaphorical extensions correspond to different situation types; this allows us to use analysis of metaphoric shifts as an additional instrument to establish the semantic structure of direct meanings.
The monograph presents a scientific and theoretical edition and devoted to the problem of polysemy with a cognitive-semantic context, in particular, complex, not single metaphors and their cognitive heuristic function. The study is based on further development and elaboration of the theory of custody schemes of J. Lakoff and M. Johnson, and considers a metaphor as a tool for systemic understanding of deep conceptual spheres, giving the structural cohesion to the human experience. Cognitive approach to the scientific study assumes that the entire role in the formation of language values belongs to the person as a participant of communication, the observer and the media of knowledge and some experience.
The paper is an attempt to demonstrate that theatrical metaphor plays a paradigmatic role in the philosophy of Schelling, from the very beginning up to the latest versions of his metaphysics. The image of theatrical play serves, in Schelling, as the main pattern for the conceptualization of every process in which freedom and necessity are mediated through each other – of thinking as such, of the World history as a whole, of the very genesis of the world, and of the history of the human consciousness.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.