### Article

## On generating series of finitely presented operads

Given an operad P with a finite Gröbner basis of relations, we study the generating functions for the dimensions of its graded components P(n). Under moderate assumptions on the relations we prove that the exponential generating function for the sequence {dimP(n)} is differential algebraic, and in fact algebraic if P is a symmetrization of a non-symmetric operad. If, in addition, the growth of the dimensions of P(n) is bounded by an exponent of n(or a polynomial of n, in the non-symmetric case) then, moreover, the ordinary generating function for the above sequence {dimP(n)} is rational. We give a number of examples of calculations and discuss conjectures about the above generating functions for more general classes of operads.

We consider varieties of linear multioperator algebras, that is, classes of algebras with several multilinear operations satisfying certain identities. To each such a variety one can assign a numerical sequence called a sequence of codimensions. The n-th codimension is equal to the dimension of the vector space of all n-linear operations in the free algebra of the variety. In recent decades, a new approach to such a sequence has appeared based on the fact that the union of the above vector spaces carries the structure of algebraic operad, so that the generating function of the codimension sequence is equal to the generating series of the operad. We show that in general there does not exist an algorithm to decide whether the growth exponent of the codimension sequence of the variety defined by given finite sets of operations and identities is equal to a given rational number. In particular, we solve negatively a recent conjecture by Bremner and Dotsenko by showing that the set of codimension sequences of varieties defined by a bounded number and degrees of operations and identities is infinite. Then we discuss algorithms which in many cases calculate the generating functions of the codimension series in the form of a defining algebraic or differential equation. For a more general class of varieties, these algorithms give upper and lower bounds for the codimensions in terms of generating functions. The upper bound is just a formal power series satisfying an algebraic equation defined effectively by the generators and the identities of the variety. The first stage of an algorithm for the lower bound is the construction of a Groebner basis of the operad. If the Groebner basis happens to be finite and satisfies mild restrictions, a recent theorem by the author and Anton Khoroshkin guarantees that the desired generating function is either algebraic or differential algebraic. We describe algorithms producing such equations. In the case of infinite Groebner basis, these algorithms applied to its finite subsets give lower bounds for the generating function of the codimension sequence.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

We give an explicit formula for a quasi-isomorphism between the operads Hycomm (the homology of the moduli space of stable genus 0 curves) and BV/Δ (the homotopy quotient of Batalin-Vilkovisky operad by the BV-operator). In other words we derive an equivalence of Hycomm-algebras and BV-algebras enhanced with a homotopy that trivializes the BV-operator. These formulas are given in terms of the Givental graphs, and are proved in two different ways. One proof uses the Givental group action, and the other proof goes through a chain of explicit formulas on resolutions of Hycomm and BV. The second approach gives, in particular, a homological explanation of the Givental group action on Hycomm-algebras. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.