Towards a new understanding of cohabitation: Insights from focus group research across Europe and Australia
Across the industrialized world, more couples are living together without marrying.
Although researchers have compared cohabitation cross-nationally using quantitative
data, few have compared union formation using qualitative data.
We use focus group research to compare social norms of cohabitation and marriage in
Australia and nine countries in Europe. We explore questions such as: what is the
meaning of cohabitation? To what extent is cohabitation indistinguishable from
marriage, a prelude to marriage, or an alternative to being single? Are the meanings of
cohabitation similar across countries?
This project is devoted to the issue of relation between social professional status and cultural consumption. Previous research findings reveal considerable differences both in the structure of cultural consumption and in its dependence on social position. Using Eurobarometer 79.2 (Spring 2013) database I show regional characteristics of cultural participation patterns of different professional groups across Europe.
The third topic of the lecture course «Firm-Level Empirical Surveys: Tools and Practice» is presented in this issue. The topic «Qualitative information: tools for collection and analysis of data» includes two lectures and describes existing methodology and application of qualitative research to firms behavior studies: in-depth interviews, case-studies and focus groups. Special attention is paid to organization of an empirical survey as a set of in-depth interviews with top-managers of enterprises including methodology, field-work procedures and questionnaires. Limitations and advantages of top-managers interviewing as a tool of collecting qualitative information and its possible distortion are discussed.
This article is devoted to the origin of the third “coexistence’ (1997–2002) in France of V Republic explained by its main participant – President Jacques Chirac. Particular attention is paid to his decision to dissolve Parliament and to lead pre-term elections in 1997.
The paper deals with multilevel regression modelling (MLM) as a method preferred to the ordinary least-squares regression in the analysis of comparative data with hierarchical data structure. We present substantive reasons (contextual sources of heterogeneity, causal heterogeneity, and generalisability of results) and statistical reasons (obtaining more precise and reliable estimates) for multilevel modelling. We also provide an overview of MLM implementation in several statistical packages. Using the cross-national World Values Survey (WVS) data, we outline a step-by-step procedure for building and fitting a two-level linear regression model of generalized trust on educational attainment levels (the “null” model, the fixed-intercept model, the random-intercept model, the random-intercept random-slope model, the model with a country-level predictor, and the cross-level interaction model). Then we describe and compare existing goodness-of-fit measures for MLM (AIC, BIC, maximum likelihood functions, and pseudo-R2). We also demonstrate robustness check techniques for multilevel models (visualization, Cook’s distance, and DFBETAs). In the final section, we overview alternative approaches to multilevel modelling when dealing with hierarchical data (cluster robust standard errors, generalized estimating equations, country fixed effects, country means, and aggregation) as currently practiced in comparative cross-national social science research. The replicable R code is attached.
Comparative source study considered as a method of comparative-historical research, based on theoretical understanding of the basic classification unit of source study – types of historical sources as representations of the forms of social human activities, the totality of which represents the culture system.
We compare the implementations and practices of open government and open government data in Mexico, Russia, and the US using a set of common concepts focused on policy environment and context. After providing thumbnail sketches of each country, we consider how variations among the countries are relate to context-specific historical problems, policies and politics From there we comment on the prospects for the institutionalization of open government and open data in each country.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.