Об изменении регламентации преподавания литературы в современной школе
A survey of first-year philology students was conducted in autumn 2008 at Moscow Humanitarian Pedagogical Institute (MHPI) with a purpose to explore their reading interests and to get an idea of how they had read the required school reading books — whether in full, in short summaries, or in excerpts. The same survey was conducted in 2013 among first-year philology students of the Institute of Humanities at Moscow City Pedagogical University, of which the MHPI became part in 2012. We discovered that high-school students did not read all dramatic and epic required reading books in full and showed little interest towards books telling about the painful points of the Russian history (collectivization, repressions, famine, etc.) or stories with complicated plots. The list of particularly important books has changed insignificantly, consisting almost entirely of required school reading books and foreign books, with their number reduced by a third for the last five years. The scope of reading interests also proved to involve mainly foreign literature and to have shrunken in the last five years. The required reading list and the number of books actually read by high-school graduates do not coincide: even philology-oriented school students read many books in excerpts or simplified versions. Literature as a school subject does not create enough motivation to read what is referred to as national literary classics. We find it necessary to revise the conventional attitudes to state prescriptions for teaching literature, to refuse from rigid required reading book lists, and to switch to a competency-based model of literary education outlined in the Federal State Literature Standards. A transition like that will require revision of the existing approaches to testing reading and speaking competencies of school leavers through the Unified State Examination.
This paper describes the experience of the application of the design approach which is used in the HSE - Nizhny Novgorod in the teaching of accounting (financial) accounting, auditing, economic analysis. The stages of a complex project, as benefits of this approach and the problems that arise.
The functional model of the subsystem holding the business game of the competence based business games studio software suite is regarded. Use case diagram is employed to build the model.
This article examines the relationship between pre-entry coaching (both in terms of money and effort) and the achievement of Russian high school graduates as measured by the results of the Unified State Examination (USE). Using a data set of students from the 16 biggest Russian cities, which includes information on USE results, family background, school characteristics, and patterns on pre-entry coaching, I estimate the factors that determine the final USE results. Characteristics of pre-entry courses (the duration of the program as well as the total fee) are related to higher USE scores, but the size of this association is moderate. Attending individual classes has a significant (but still moderate) relationship with the USE score in Russian, but the duration of a program moderately and positively relates to the USE scores. Other factors, like parental education, family income, student abilities, and the type of school attended are significant predictors of USE results in Russian, Mathematics, and the average USE score.
Successful online learning if we look outside the didactics but in the field of personal development, from the anthropological bases, is in learner’s identification as an active subject of the learning process. Activities that online learners perform correlate with the characteristics of the subjectness that researchers revealed: spotting one’s own gaps in the educational environment and one’s educational needs, satisfying them and enhancing one’s competence by means of online learning (ability to change the environment and oneself inside that, reflexive way of life, realizing the principle of development), searching, selecting and studying online courses on one’s own, supported first and foremost by the intrinsic motivation (initiative), ability to plan and analyze one’s activity or inaction in the course, managing the requirements and the deadlines of the assignments, as well as readiness to accept the consequences of one’s choice (responsibility). Therefore, successful online learners (those who study on their own, cope with the tasks in time and in a proper way, achieve expected results) are characterized with such a subjectness that is based on a set of general-cultural and general-professional competencies that should be formed. To define the set of competencies, which an online learner needs to become successful and to study learners’ attitude to them, we have done a competency-based test (self-assessment questionnaire) in September - November 2017. The respondents were 2060 learners from TSU online courses offered on three e-learning platforms (population is 80938). Learners responded that the following general-cultural competencies are of much help for them in online learning: readiness to self-development, self-realization and using one’s own creativity (69,7%), ability to organize and educate oneself (53,3%), ability to acquire new scientific and professional knowledge using modern educational and informational technologies (62,3%), as well as ability to imply means and methods of learning and self-control over one’s intellectual development, increasing one’s cultural level and professional competence (50,2%). Among general-professional competencies the learners replied that the most useful competencies for online learning are computer skills for receiving, processing and managing information (79,5%), ability to work with the main retrieval query systems (60,2%), ability to search for scientific information, perform its critical analysis, to set research objectives and choosing appropriate methods and technologies to achieve them (59,3%), ability to critically analyze the learning process and training materials from the point of view of their effectiveness (54%) and ability to use polite manners in oral and written speech (21,9%). At the same time, the respondents define general-cultural competencies as more significant. Therefore, the survey results proved our idea that successful online learning requires firstly, a set of general-cultural competences (those which are connected to the learner’s personal development and his/ her subjectness in the learning process) and secondly, a set of general-professional competencies to be formed. This led us to the idea that assessing learner’s level of the general-cultural competences we can predict his/ her future success in taking online courses.
The article considers the conceptual approach of creating a set of development tools for active learning methods in a form of competency-based business-game studio. Competence-based business game is an information system, which aims to give a certain level of professional competence while implementing scenarios that are determined by business-process models of the domain. The structure of the gaming studio, suggests a set-theoretic representation of business-game design process. Business game can be represented as a cybernetic system with feedback, which contains both the object of management and the management system. The game is implemented as control and operating machines accordingly. For the construction of the operational machine it is proposed to use a knowledge model in the form of ontology. To represent the automate model it is proposed to use a model of managing business processes of an enterprise. A block diagram of the business-game design process is provided.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.