Demographic transition theory is developed highlighting cultural transmission pattern as a key driver. Individuals maximize cultural fitness, i.e. the rate of own cultural type absorption by future generations. With low population density, one’s culture can be picked up only by own children, and so cultural fitness equals genetic fitness, individuals allocate all energy surplus to reproduction, and the Malthusian regime occurs. With rising population density, cultural transmission between non-relatives accelerates; knowledge production by an individual makes his culture more attractive. Individuals reallocate some of energy surplus from reproduction to knowledge production, causing technological growth. The model fits observed demographic transition patterns.
The article deals with the representation of temporal and spatial perspectives in the content of alphabets published for Russian-speaking children in the 1920s in Latvia and Poland, as well as in the USSR. Historical material is used to compare strategies for intra-group consolidation and integration into the host society. The source base consisted of two ABC books published in Latvia, one in Poland, and two in Soviet Russia. The analysis showed differences in representation in academic books published in different political contexts, time intervals, their combinations and emotional assessments, as well as extent of mastering by the child of space and the prospects for its further development and allowed to conclude that, in the "emigrant" primer highlights the temporal correspondences are characterized by "horizontal" in the Soviet primer - the "vertical" tendencies of the life process, and the space of life in the emigrant ABC books is mainly limited to the walls of the native house, while the Soviet ABC books demonstrate expansionist tendencies. The emigrant community is represented as "frozen" at a certain point in the historical path, although depending on the political and social conditions of the host society, this static nature can perform different functions.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.