Accounting of Value Added in International Trade
Gross exports accounting is a novel sub-area of research that seeks to allocate the value added in gross trade flows to its true country and sector of origin and country or sector of destination. Various frameworks have been recently proposed to perform such decompositions. This paper presents another effort to generalise the accounting framework so that it may be easily interpreted, customised and implemented in matrix computation software. The principal contribution is therefore a relatively simple way to derive the formulae for the decomposition of cumulative value added flows embodied in international trade. The underlying accounting approach is found to be largely similar to that of [Koopman et al., 2012; Stehrer, 2013], but the block matrix formulation allows the user to simultaneously decompose all bilateral flows at the country and/or sectoral level. The refined framework is applied to describe Russia’s export performance from the global value chain perspective using the data from the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) for 2000 and 2010. According to the findings, the countries that directly receive most of Russia’s exports are not exactly those that use most of Russia’s value added. Russia’s mining sector is found to be an intrinsic part of a complex downstream value chain where it indirectly contributes value to partner exports.
Contemporary research of different international organizations such as OECD, WTO and UNCTAD concentrate more on global value chains (GVCs) analysis. The article is devoted to reasons for rising fragmentation of production in the world economy and forms of participation in GVCs, which are chosen by countries. The article demonstrates theoretical framework for various forms of integration of countries into GVCs. Furthermore, the authors present retrospective and comparative analysis of several countries' economic development within GVCs.
This collection of papers is a combined initiative of EPF member think tanks and is the result of two round-table discussions under the Regional Integration research stream. The first event, ‘Drivers of Regional Integration’, took place in Cape Town, 25-27 November 2014; the second, ‘Regional Integration and Regional Value Chains’ was held in Moscow, 21 May 2015.
The objective of this paper is to analyse the scope for improving empirical and methodological foundation of global value chains (GVCs) research and for making relevant political decisions, primarily through application of foresight methodology. The authors review major trends of global value chains’ development, specific features of Russia’s participation in them, and the necessary steps to increase the quality and efficiency of this participation, in particular in the changing geopolitical context. Special attention was paid to theoretical, methodological, and empirical aspects of GVC research which are far from being adequate (primarily we mean international databases such as TiVA and WIOD developed with participation of the OECD and the WTO): they need to be supplemented with advanced tools to improve their forecasting potential, and practical and strategic orientation. To this end, approaches which would make it possible to research interconnection between global processes and trends with regional and national innovation-based development tendencies become of crucial importance. Application of foresight methodology may significantly contribute to researching the GVC phenomenon, being a major logical step towards creating advanced research and policy tools to mobilise available resources and coordinate stakeholders’ actions to increase global competitiveness. The paper presents a number of case studies which describe practical application of foresight methodology to analyse Russian participation in various GVCs, by the examples of specific product and service group. The authors conclude that both full-scale foresight studies and specific components thereof could be applied for the purposes of GVC analysis, strategic planning and making political decisions.
The article performs a comparative analysis of the efficiency of G20, BRICS and NIC member countries’ participation in global value chains (GVC) taking into account economic growth, investment activity, global competitiveness and productivity in the period from 2000 to 2009. Efficiency is evaluated by means of the method of data envelopment analysis under constant and variable returns of scale assumptions. The comparison of the efficiency of developed and developing countries participation in GVCs is made, the leaders and outsiders in using the GVCs’ potential are revealed. For the latter the target values of the input and output parameters allowing to reach the efficiency frontier are indicated.
We consider certain spaces of functions on the circle, which naturally appear in harmonic analysis, and superposition operators on these spaces. We study the following question: which functions have the property that each their superposition with a homeomorphism of the circle belongs to a given space? We also study the multidimensional case.
We consider the spaces of functions on the m-dimensional torus, whose Fourier transform is p -summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of the exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase. The results generalize to the multidimensional case the one-dimensional results obtained by the author earlier in “Quantitative estimates in the Beurling—Helson theorem”, Sbornik: Mathematics, 201:12 (2010), 1811 – 1836.
We consider the spaces of function on the circle whose Fourier transform is p-summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase.