Учебная книга как инструмент закрепления морального порядка и управления многообразием: употребление категории «народ/этнос» в учебниках «Природоведение» и «Окружающий мир»
We analyze the contexts of use of the category "people" in the Soviet and post-Soviet primary school textbooks. Empirical base of the research: 3 textbooks (1970-80-ies) and 12 textbooks (2001-2006). The analysis of the frequency of the use of the concept "people" in various meanings demonstrated: in Soviet textbooks the meanings "working people" and "co-citizenship" are dominated, in post - Soviet – “ethno-cultural community"."Ethnic groups" are mentioned in the Soviet textbooks only in the context of natural-climatic zones, with emphasis on economic specialization as "traditional" type of production. In the post-Soviet textbooks "ethnic groups" are mentioned in the civil and historical contexts. This includes the possibility and necessity of definite ethnic identification of the individual, the criteria of which are language, folklore, anthropological characteristics, mental warehouse. Approval of homogeneity of the group on the basis of these criteria leads to the approval of the homogeneity of the nation, as a nation as a political community is conceived in the modern textbooks as a developed form of the ethnic community. Such contexts are fixed through the approval of morality of the social order, which leads to the fixation of social hierarchy and to the spread of discriminatory practices against minorities.