Дети в мигрантских семьях: родительские стратегии в транснациональных контекстах
The peculiarities of the development of schoolchild personality in the conditions of the modern school are regarded in the article taking to account his or her migratory history. The sociological analysis of external factors and content elements of migrants' children adaptation, contradictions, that arise in the process of school adaptation, the opportunities of the personal development of children at school are underscored in the article.
The important indicator in the process of migrant and second-generation incorporation is the extent of the intergeneration progress determined by the achievement of second-generation higher SES than their parents had. Due to many children of recent migrants still studying at school, researchers have focused on different factors that could determine and predict the subsequent achievement of school-age children. This includes educational achievements, educational aspirations, expectations, plans for the future etc.
Only a small amount of research examines the role of after-school and extra-curriculum activities in the career paths of migrant children and has considered which additional resources could be given to the children who were involved in such programs. The few studies that have been conducted, showed that what happens to a child after lessons, can have a significant impact on the performance of these children, forming friendships as well as subsequent career achievements. Additionally some of them showed how extra-curricular and after-school activities have had an influence on the life of a migrant children.
The study of children who have attended different after-school programs in St. Petersburg allows us to answer the following questions: are there any differentiations between after-school activities of migrant children and non-migrant children whose families hold the same social position? We also examine how after-school program participation relates to academic outcomes, parental practicies, the cultural and social resources of families and migrant/non-migrant backgrounds. The results are based on survey responses gathered from participants of after-school programs (N=205) located within one district.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.