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## Коррекция тестовых баллов с учетом отказов от угадывания

The problem of the correction of points scored by students during testing is considered. Classical correction formulas are modified with regard to refusal of guessing the answer. It is shown that the number of guessing is significantly influenced by test evaluation conditions. New formulas for test score correction are derived.

AMT 2013 is the most comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in Advanced Measurement and Test. The conference provides a chance for academic and industry professionals to discuss recent progress in the area of Advanced Measurement and Test. The goal of AMT2013 is to bring together the researchers from academia and industry as well as practitioners to share ideas, problems and solutions relating to the multifaceted aspects of Advanced Measurement and Test.

By the end of primary school children acquire all the basic literacy and numeracy skills, but proficiency level of these skills varies greatly among children. SAM (Student's Achievement Monitoring) allows us to define the students’ proficiency level accurately. This article gives a brief overview of the toolkit, and describes the results of testing in one region of the Russian Federation. It also investigates the characteristics of the educational environment, which may be associated with the students’ test results.

Presented and analyzed examples of the mining of new laws using neural networks. Some of these laws can not be explained within the framework of mainstream science. It is shown that the method of neural network modeling allows such knowledge to successfully use in practice.Problems of Application of neural network modeling method to obtain new knowledge are discussed.

The present book will be helpful resource for pre-intermediate level (A1-A2) people aimed to systematize their grammar knowledge, enlarge vocabulary and improve reading comprehension activities (scanning, skimming, intensive reading) in order to prepare for different types of exams.

The book includes authentic texts from French media and Intrenet sites accompanied by a set of questions, exercises and tests. Many of them are based on french and russian placement examination tasks.

Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.