Влияние элементов приглашения на увеличение откликов в онлайн-опросах
The authors discuss the problems of selection of respondents for participation in online surveys. The results and the experience of the use of the respondent-driven sampling (RDS) used in online surveys among students of the Higher School of Economics were analyzed in the article. The authors checked whether the web-based RDS corresponds to the basic assumptions such as reciprocity of communications between respondents, random selection and respondent` capability to adequately assess the size of the ego network. An additional question referred to the influence of the “seeds” (first RDS respondents) on the dynamics and the quality of the final sampling was also studied. To answer the questions, two online RDSbased surveys were carried out by the author (online RDS-1 and online RDS-2). The key difference between these two studies is that the “seeds” in the second one were selected out of the researchers` own personal contacts. The authors conclude that the dynamics of the online RDS is more effective if the “seeds” know the researcher in person. At the same time, online RDS-1 and online RDS-2 did not provide the exact assessment of the control parameters of the population. Based on the results of the study the authors define problems for future research.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.