Contextualizing Migrants’ Strategies of Seeking Medical Care in Russia
Previous studies of migrants from Central Asia living and working in Russia suggest that their life is characterized by limited resources and social exclusion. Heavy physical work, cramped living conditions, poor nutrition, lack of health insurance and scarce information about medical infrastructure are the barriers on migrants' way to timely and quality medical care. Moreover, limited access to healthcare is aggravated by negative attitudes and discriminatory practices that migrants face when visiting state hospitals and polyclinics of Moscow. In this study, we first aim to describe medical infrastructure available for the migrants in Moscow. Second, we have a goal to investigate how migrants use formal and informal strategies to overcome the barriers on their way to receiving medical care in the urban environment. The study is based on the analysis of qualitative interviews with 23 caregivers working in Moscow-based medical facilities such as state hospitals, polyclinics, and ambulance stations, private medical centers including the so called Kyrgyz clinics.
The concept of social exclusion is currently regarded by researchers in social sciences as a multi-dimensional phenomenon which covers a number of interrelated aspects at a time. It normally involves exclusion from economic life, social services, public life and social networks. In 2010, the European Union adopted “Strategy for Smart, Sustainable and Inclusive Growth” for the period until 2020 which identified clear and quantifiable parameters for reducing the number of the socially excluded in the EU countries. However, no consensus is yet reached at the international level as to the definition of the concept of social exclusion as to the methodology to measure it. The European Union, World Bank, OECD and UN agencies are still using different indicators for assessing poverty, deprivation and social exclusion. In the Russian Federation, the category of social exclusion is rather a theoretical concept than a specific instrument for transforming and implementing social policies. Most Russian studies are discussing the problems of measuring social exclusion at the national level or among specific socially vulnerable population groups. Meanwhile there are now studies concerning spatial dimension of the level of social exclusion of the population of Russian regions. This study is designed to fill this existing gap.
McGuire acknowledges support from the Linda and John Arnold Foundation. This collaborative project was inspired by the Risk Adjustment Network (RAN) members who contributed as chapter authors and commenters. Sarah Stone devoted part of her Summer 2017 to helping edit the chapters when they were arriving fast and furious. We are grateful to her for skilled help at a critical time. Most gratitude is due to our colleagues from around the world who took the time to assemble such an authoritative set of chapters, and to put up with our repeated calls for revisions. Finally, the editors thank Elsevier’s Susan Ikeda for her guidance and assistance throughout the logistically complex writing and production process.
The article deals with the gender and class aspects of mechanisms of exclusion and barriers to access to public services for migrants from former Soviet national republics in contemporary Russia, with a focus on Armenian women's practices of using the healthcare and pre-school care services. The author analyzes institutional and cultural barriers to access to services. Institutional barriers are created by legal status of migrants. The absence of citizenship presents a constraint on obtaining public medical services. Use of pre-school care services (kindergarten) contradicts the gender culture shared by Armenian women. These cultural barriers are discussed in the context of migrants' gender culture. Gender culture is conceptualized through the concept of the gender paradigm as a main cultural code providing meaning to women's everyday practices. For Armenian women the gender paradigm is described as patriarchy. Social exclusion and strategies of coping with the patriarchy also have the class dimension. Institutional barriers are overcome using economic and social resources of migrants. The norms of patriarchal gender culture are interpreted pragmatically and are less rigid among educated classes.
Presenting the findings of a major research project, this volume investigates the regional, ethnic and socio-cultural aspects of poverty and social exclusion in Russia in recent years. In-depth household interviews and survey data allowed teams from the UK, Denmark and Russia to compare different societies and communities in Russia across several different themes: the definition of poverty in different regional, ethnic and socio-cultural settings; the reproduction and formation of poverty subcultures in different societies and communities; the ethnic/national and political values of poor people; the readiness of poor people for social protest; and a comparison of Russia with other EU countries. Offering a wealth of original data collected following a period of rapid impoverishment of the Russian population, the study considers the challenge this presents to Western European models of poverty and social exclusion.
The author tried to avoid the usual perception of informality and informal practices in migration sphere in Russia. This article, by analyzing the migration sphere in Russia using the approach of T. Zaslavskaya about three levels of the social actions of social actors (micro-, meso -, and macro-levels), showed that migrants in Russia can operate only at the micro level. Therefore, “informality” is a result of actions taken by the actors who operate at the macro - and meso-level
In this paper I put a question about a legitimate base of the Russian authority's stability. The research is based on two theoretical conceptions: 1. the conception of societal involution, which was offered by M. Burawoy within the scope of a new school of social theory – public sociology; 2. a thesis that in the absence of a public validation mechanisms of authority's decisions authorities function in conditions of latent legitimacy crisis. The thesis has been taken from Habermasian's criticism on Weberian's concept of a legitimacy. By the argumentation given in the present work I make a conclusion that under conditions of societal involution Russian authorities stability is based not on legitimate foundations, but on informal practices.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.