Kontsevich Integral for Knots and Vassiliev Invariants
We review quantum field theory approach to the knot theory. Using holomorphic gauge we obtain the Kontsevich integral. It is explained how to calculate Vassiliev invariants and coefficients in Kontsevich integral in a combinatorial way which can be programmed on a computer. We discuss experimental results and temporal gauge considerations which lead to representation of Vassiliev invariants in terms of arrow diagrams. Explicit examples and computational results are presented
Given a Lie algebra with a scalar product, one may consider the latter as a symplectic structure on a $dg$-scheme, which is the spectrum of the Chevalley--Eilenberg algebra. In the first section we explicitly calculate the first order deformation of the differential on the Hochschild complex of the Chevalley--Eilenberg algebra. The answer contains the Duflo character. This calculation is used in the last section. There we sketch the definition of the Wilson loop invariant of knots, which is, hopefully, equal to the Kontsevich integral, and show that for unknot they coincide. As a byproduct, we get a new proof of the Duflo isomorphism for a Lie algebra with a scalar product.
We discuss applications of generating functions for colored graphs to asymptotic expansions of matrix integrals. The described technique provides an asymptotic expansion of the Kontsevich integral. We prove that this expansion is a refinement of the Kontsevich expansion, which is the sum over the set of classes of isomorphic ribbon graphs. This yields a proof of Kontsevich’s results that is independent of the Feynman graph technique.
Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.
Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.