### Article

## Symplectic Degenerate Flag Varieties

A simple finite dimensional module V_\lambda of a simple complex algebraic group G is naturally endowed with a filtration induced by

the PBW filtration of U(Lie(G)). The associated graded space is a module for the group G^a which can be roughly described as a semi-direct product of a Borel subgroup of G and a large commutative unipotent group. In analogy to the classical flag variety of G, we define the degenerate flag variety F^a_\lambda as the closure of the G^a-orbit through the highest weight line. In general this is a singular variety, but we conjecture that it has many nice properties similar to that of Schubert varieties. In this paper we consider the case of G being the symplectic group. The symplectic case is important for the conjecture because it is the first known case where, even for fundamental weights \omega, the varieties F^a_\omega differ from the classical partial flag varieties F_\omega. We give an explicit construction of the varieties F^a_\lambda and construct desingularizations, similar to the Bott-Samelson resolutions in the classical case. We prove that $F^a_\lambda$ are normal locally complete intersections with terminal and rational singularities. We also show that these varieties are Frobenius split. Using the above mentioned results, we prove an analogue of the Borel-Weil theorem and obtain a q-character formula for the characters of irreducible of Sp_{2n}-modules via the Atiyah-Bott-Lefschetz fixed point formula

Let $Fl^a_\lambda$ be the PBW degeneration of the flag varieties of type $A_{n-1}$. These varieties are singular and are acted upon with the degenerate Lie group $SL_n^a$. We prove that $Fl^a_\lambda$ have rational singularities, are normal and locally complete intersections, and construct a desingularization $R_\lambda$ of $Fl^a_\lambda$. The varieties $R_\lambda$ can be viewed as towers of successive $P^1$-fibrations, thus providing an analogue of the classical Bott-Samelson-Demazure-Hansen desingularization. We prove that the varieties $R_\lambda$ are Frobenius split. This gives us Frobenius splitting for the degenerate flag varieties and allows to prove the Borel-Weil type theorem for $Fl^a_\lambda$. Using the Atiyah-Bott-Lefschetz formula for $R_\la$, we compute the $q$-characters of the highest weight $\msl_n$-modules.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

We study the connection between the affine degenerate Grassmannians in type A, quiver Grassmannians for one vertex loop quivers and affine Schubert varieties. We give an explicit description of the degenerate affine Grassmannian of type GL(n) and identify it with semi-infinite orbit closure of type A_{2n-1}. We show that principal quiver Grassmannians for the one vertex loop quiver provide finite-dimensional approximations of the degenerate affine Grassmannian. Finally, we give an explicit description of the degenerate affine Grassmannian of type A_1^{(1)}, propose a conjectural description in the symplectic case and discuss the generalization to the case of the affine degenerate flag varieties.

In this paper we prove isomorphisms between 5 Lie groups (of arbitrary dimension and fixed signatures) in Clifford algebra and classical matrix Lie groups - symplectic, orthogonal and linear groups. Also we obtain isomorphisms of corresponding Lie algebras.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.