Психологические методы изменения поведения, связанного со здоровьем: возможности и ограничения
Health Psychology as a discipline is established as an independent field of psychological knowledge, realizing the biopsychosocial approach to health and illness. However there are questions remaining open: how practically this approach is applied in health psychology and what are the borders between health psychology and close disciplines (psychosomatics, body functions regulation psychology, behavioral medicine, positive psychology). The purpose of this paper is to examine the possibilities and limitations in the application of the biopsychosocial approach to health psychology, as well as to compare different alternative sciences based on this approach. There is heterogeneity of biopsychosocial approach revealed, that is based on three different functions this approach has in the regulation of research: the role of ethical and social guidelines, the role of methodological principle, the role of the explanatory model for health and illness. The specificity of the subject area of health psychology implies taking into account issues like wide / narrow definition of the subject in various disciplines; what kind of discipline serves as an integrative; as well as understanding of social situation of science development (including the development of psychosomatic medicine in Russia), its goals and objectives.
This paper analyzes the problems of self-regulation in health psychology. Development of models of self-regulation describes a new (compared with continuum models and stages models) stage of research, which is realized in the form of application to the problems of general psychological health and disease models (model «Rubicon», the concept of instrumental intentions and monitoring the operation, the resource model of self-control, the theory of self-regulation, the self-determination theory, the model of the double bond), and the form of development of specific concepts (procedural approach to actions related to health, the model of self-regulation in health and disease, the theory of temporal self-regulation).
Illness and treatment representation in the broad sense is considered as one of the key factors of self-regulation in the situation of the illness in psychosomatics and health psychology. This work is devoted to the application of locus of control constructs (internality / externality of attribution of events) and self-efficacy (confidence of the person in her ability to realize her plans) to health and illness. According to the results of the theoretical review, it is important to assess the locus of control and self-efficacy in the specific situation – like situation of illness and treatment. We assume that the structure of the locus of control can be distinguished to not only internal, external and impersonal locus of control – but also that the locus of control of illness reasons and of treatment have different functions. On the basis of these assumptions we developed illness- and treatment-related locus of control scale and treatment-related selfefficacy scale and validated them on a sample of 517 respondents. Consistency of scales in different samples was 0,63-0,82 (with the exception of external locus of control subscale for illness reasons, 0,53-0,58), test-retest reliability - 0,58-0,81. Factor analysis confirms the 6-factor structure of the illness- and treatment-related locus of control scale, and single-factor of treatment- related self-efficacy scale. Correlation with general locus of control questionnaire and general self-efficacy scale is in favor of their convergent validity. Typical profile of internal, external and impersonal locus of control regarding the illness reasons and treatment was revealed. Treatment self-efficacy is related to the majority of indicators of both physical and psychological subjective well-being, while external and impersonal LC regarding illness reasons and impersonal LC of treatment are associated with worse quality of life (in domains of health, emotions), and in some cases - with symptoms of anxiety and depression. The role of internal LC and external LC of treatment is less clear. The scales could be used in studies of the attribution of illness and treatment and confidence in the treatment.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.