Higher school students are challenged with the lack of conversation practice while learning a foreign language. This problem can be solved by organizing conversation clubs that aim to help learners acquire fluency in speaking. Such extracurricular activities enhance students' motivation, improves their speaking as well as social skills.
This research examined the influence of the educational system on schoolchildren’s subject academic motivation. The intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of the study of mathematics and Russian language in elementary schoolchildren enrolled in the Elkonin-Davydov system of developmental education (N = 337) and the so-called traditional education (N = 669) is analyzed. The children enrolled in the developmental education classes showed significantly higher rates of intrinsic motivation and identified motivation, which are two most beneficial types of academic motivation. This means that learning activities in the developmental education classes are more so than in the so-called traditional classes are based on interest, desire for self-development and understanding the value of the educational process. Another meaningful and independent contribution to the quality of academic motivation (especially children’s intrinsic motivation and identified motivation) is made by children’s satisfaction with their teachers’ personality. Features of developmental education that contribute to student motivation are discussed.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.