Универсальность и специфичность внутренней и внешней мотивации учебной деятельности и их роли как предикторов академических достижений
The article describes ways of using formative assessment in competence-based education to increase students' motivation for learning.
Psychological predictors of academic achievements in university students were studied (N = 176). The aim of the study was to investigate how the Big Five personality traits contributed to different academic achievements. The Unified State Examination (USE) scores were used for evaluation of academic success prior to university admission and grade point average was used as a measure of current academic performance. Introversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism and Openness were shown to be important predictors of academic achievements in Russian university students. These results are only partially supported by the results of similar studies conducted in Western Europe and North America. Possible reasons of the above discrepancies are discussed. It is concluded that these discrepancies are due to country-specific differences in educational environment and requirements to student personality traits.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.