El rey, el emperador, el tirano – el concepto del poder e ideal político en la cultura intelectual alfonsina
The subject of this article is the concept of power developed by the jurists of Alfonso the Wise in the Partidas. The main role of the king as the political and spiritual leader of his Kingdom is shown through a system of oppositions. The existing main distinction between the king and emperor is also seen in the alphonsine doctrine: the power of the former has a mystical character, while the second is based on purely rational grounds.
The article is a critical survey of the recent biography of German lawyer and political scientist Carl Schmitt written by R. Mehring. The author focuses on the particularity of Mehring's approach to the biography and reveals the characteristic examples which are the evidence of Mehring's outstanding work full of unique historical facts, although he does not create the unified and methodically coherent Schmitt's story of life.
In 1957 Ernst Kantorowicz published a book that would be the guide for generations of scholars through the arcane mysteries of medieval political theology. In The King's Two Bodies, Kantorowicz traces the historical problem posed by the "King's two bodies"--the body politic and the body natural--back to the Middle Ages and demonstrates, by placing the concept in its proper setting of medieval thought and political theory, how the early-modern Western monarchies gradually began to develop a "political theology."
The king's natural body has physical attributes, suffers, and dies, naturally, as do all humans; but the king's other body, the spiritual body, transcends the earthly and serves as a symbol of his office as majesty with the divine right to rule. The notion of the two bodies allowed for the continuity of monarchy even when the monarch died, as summed up in the formulation "The king is dead. Long live the king."
Bringing together liturgical works, images, and polemical material, The King's Two Bodies explores the long Christian past behind this "political theology." It provides a subtle history of how commonwealths developed symbolic means for establishing their sovereignty and, with such means, began to establish early forms of the nation-state.
In this paper were examined the concepts of uso and costumbre as they are reflected in the Siete Partidas of Alphonse the Sage of Castile (1252 – 1284). Author analyses the problems of its introduction, principal qualities and procedure of the abrogation of a custom. The special consideration is given to the organic connections existing between the law of medieval Castile and the doctrine of European ius commune.
Often in the Middle Ages corpse of a dead ruler became centre of intesive ritual activity. One of its specific forms was plundering of the dead body or/and exhibiting it naked without any sort of insignia. The author disputes with explanations of this custom proposed in academaic publications of the last decades and demonstrates new cases, concerning secular rulers, mainly kings of England.
The subject of the article is custom of plundering of ecclestiacal but also secular princes after their death, intensively praticised in Europe during the Middle Ages and Early Modern Time.
How can we understand (German) idealism as emancipatory today, after the new realist critique? In this paper, I argue that we can do so by identifying a political theology of revolution and utopia at the theoretical heart of German Idealism. First, idealism implies a certain revolutionary event at its foundation. Kant’s Copernicanism is ingrained, methodologically and ontologically, into the idealist system itself. Secondly, this revolutionary origin remains a "non-place" for the idealist system, which thereby receives a utopian character. I define the utopian as the ideal gap, produced by and from within the real, between the non-place of the real as origin and its reduplication as the non-place of knowledge’s closure, as well as the impulse, inherent in idealism, to attempt to close that gap and fully replace the old with the new. Based on this definition, I outline how the utopian functions in Kant, Fichte and Hegel. Furthermore, I suggest that (German) idealism may be seen as a political-theological offshoot of realism, via the objective creation of a revolutionary condition. The origin of the ideal remains in the real, maintaining the utopian gap and the essentially critical character of idealism, both at the level of theory and as social critique.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/