Эффективность государственных инвестиций в публичный капитал: от модели к оценке
The study has two major focuses. The first one is of a methodological kind: we investigate the capabilities of a formal dynamic model to link theory and empirical estimation techniques. The other one is much more specified: we deal with the problems of public good provision and public capital accumulation and depreciation. Tying it all together, we demonstrate how formal theory can adjust the evaluation of public investment efficiency.
The first part of the paper presents the dynamic formal model construction. The core of it is Cobb-Douglas production function with public and private capital as input factors. Public capital stock is increased by budget investment inflow. A set of parameters which regulate system’s efficiency enters the model. They are total factor productivity, public investment effectiveness and the efficiency of public assets’ maintenance and utilization. We also define a special policy space of the model.
In the major part of the paper we examine the data, generated by various models with different efficiency parameter values, via Data envelopment analysis (DEA). We demonstrate that the best estimates are obtained when we use cumulative inputs (the sum of budgets investments over a few time periods). Thus we show that dynamic formal model analysis can make a practical contribution to estimation techniques’ “fine tuning”.
The search of factors positively influencing on GDP and which is able to bring economy to higher and more stable economic dynamics, is a topical issue nowadays. The article analyzes how different component of government expenditures and private expenses may influence on the increase of production dynamics. The author also valuated the results of increasing investments level on economic growth for both government and private sources under different directions of use, volumes and effectiveness. Moreover this article reviews the influence of proportion between current and capital expenses in investment over GDP and the advantages of increasing the innovation component within the investment.
The book presents a broad interdisciplinary view comcerning different aspects of civil service reforms in several countries, including Russia, in the context of transformation of role of state and character of its relations with civil society, what is taking place now in the leading coutries of the world. The main historical concepts of bureaucracy and contemporary searches new (post-Weberian) model of it are considered In the first - theoretical - part of book. The second part is devoted to inter-countries' comparative analysis of history and modern condition of civil service in Creat Britain, USA, Canada, France, Germany. The final section in each countries' paragraph is "The lessons for Russia". The subject of the third part is the Russian bureaucracy in historical and contemporary aspects. The American, English, Canadian, Rfzakh and Russian codes of civil servants' conduct applied to the monograth.
Economic growth in Hungary and Bulgaria will likely decelerate in 2016 due to a slowdown of public investment financed by EU funds. The Romanian economy, meanwhile, is expected to grow faster on the back of additional fiscal stimulus.
Paper analyses the problem of public infrastructure investment efficiency, including prerequisites, budget risks, best practices of other countries and some ways of addressing this issue. First part compares cost of investment and resulting quality of infrastructure. On this basis author concludes that efficiency of investment in infrastructure in Russia is rather low compared with developed and some developing countries. Further paper examines prerequisites of this phenomenon. All effects are divided into two levels: operational (high costs of projects implementation) and strategic (inefficient decisions). Third part of the paper deals with impact of inefficient investment policy on budget risks. In particular, author looks at such decision as investing National Wealth Fund in infrastructure projects and analyses it using existing evidence on implementation of large infrastructure projects. The fourth part proposes ways to increase efficiency of investment and reduce the risk. Paper concludes that Russia has a great potential to foster efficiency of public investment in infrastructure, at the operational as well as at the strategic level. This will facilitate reduction of corresponding budget risks, in particular, risk of non-return and risk of value increase. The former will be realized through more accurate and objective project selection process. The latter will come into effect though the improvement of monitoring system.
The article provides an overview of formal model that demonstrates the connections between institutional investment and social efficiency. The results of a set of computational experiments are described and analyzed. Some problems of mathematical modeling methodology are also discussed in the paper.
The collapse of the socialist system prompted the former USSR countries to “re-invent” their stateness. The paper focuses on factors that impede or smooth stateness transformations in post-Soviet countries. First, the paper examines internal and external factors of state formation in selected countries. Next, it introduces empirical research tools and empirical findings that present alternative patterns of stateness and outcomes of state formation. The paper concludes with a detailed review of certain cases that may be considered prototypes of state formation for post-Soviet countries.
We consider certain spaces of functions on the circle, which naturally appear in harmonic analysis, and superposition operators on these spaces. We study the following question: which functions have the property that each their superposition with a homeomorphism of the circle belongs to a given space? We also study the multidimensional case.
We consider the spaces of functions on the m-dimensional torus, whose Fourier transform is p -summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of the exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase. The results generalize to the multidimensional case the one-dimensional results obtained by the author earlier in “Quantitative estimates in the Beurling—Helson theorem”, Sbornik: Mathematics, 201:12 (2010), 1811 – 1836.
We consider the spaces of function on the circle whose Fourier transform is p-summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.