Символ-слово в поиске решения жизненных проблем
The purpose of this study is to theoretically and practically substantiate the efficacy of new methods for symbolic mediation of self-cognition focused at problematic life situation. There studied the reflection of life problem performed with discursive and logical means as well as symbolic figures, landscapes and interiors. Handling the symbols is made explicit in the person’s texts on possible solutions to problematic situation. Study outputs are the model of a word-symbol; the model of symbol’s individuality; the model of self-cognition’s life functions with accent at individualization; analysis of the case of symbolic mediation of the reflection of life problem; the typology of self-cognition forms based on productivity of different mediation ways. There substantiated the hypothesis about developing potential of different symbols’ categories as to realization of “chronotop”, “participants” and “main hero” pertaining to the problematic situation. There outlined the prospects for application of the study results in psychotherapy.
It analyses polysemantic terms the subject, the personality, the selfhood and which form sincrets for example subjectivity of selfhood and etc. It reconstructs interpretation of these terms by G.G. Shpet, S.L. Rubinshtein, B.M. Teplov, A.N. Leontiev, etc. It affirms that the main theme of psychological investigation is the personality. On the ontological plane we have two ways of personality: down - to the subject - to a function or to collection of functions, to subject; and up - to the selfhood - to an ideal, to the limit of self-construction, to spirituality and freedom.
This article advances the idea of cultural and individual values being connected to each other not directly, but through the consciousness and activity, which presupposes the integral unity of cultural-historic methodological approach and the activity methodological approach in psychological researches. Activity effects mainly on forming of the consciousness and personality: it underlies them. In the cultural-historic approach such basis, in a way, a unit of analysis of consciousness and personality, is a value-oriented experience. The necessity of integration of the activity approach with cultural-historic approach lies in the integral ontology of psyche, behavior, activity, experience, sense, consciousness, personality, culture and its values.
This manuscript explores alternatives to the currently dominant model of political identification with a nation (nation-state), namely versions of civilizational, cosmopolitan and identification. In the course of the research author concludes that transnational identification can not become a solution to the problem of “identity crisis” for large political communities. However, the theoretical investigation of this form of identification may be relevant to the life strategies of single individuals who face existence under the dominant political order of the nation-state, despite the fact that their practices in a global world has already gone beyond national borders.
The monograph may be of interest to students in the field of political theory, international relations and philosophy, as well as a wide range of readers ingaged in a problem of the construction of political identities in the era of globalization.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.