К истории и типологии грамматикализации германского артикля: прагматические модели употребления протоартикля в готском языке
The author investigates the distribution of proto-article in Gothic and provides the first systematic account of its usage with plural nouns denoting participants (disciples, Pharisees, scribes and others). On the initial stage of a grammaticalization process the Gothic demonstrative pronoun serves mainly as an anaphoric pronoun (anaphoric article). The anaphoric pronoun occurs after the first mention of a referent (group of participants) and indicates that participants in the discourse are already identified and accessible to the hearer. However, anaphoric pronouns cannot be used in the following discourse when the pragmatic accessibility of the referent is violated (for example, when the context indicates the change of location). The recognitional use (identifying the referent based on specific shared knowledge), non-referential contexts, the use of proto-articles in quoted speech and the emergence of indirect anaphor in Gothic are also analyzed.