Extrinsic value orientation and affective forecasting: Over-estimating the rewards, under-estimating the costs.
the elements of some crimes assume that the subject has special features specified in the disposition of the article of the Special part of the criminal law. The analysis of these features allows us to refer them to the status-role characteristics of the individual, which makes it possible to use the sociological theory of social statuses and roles for the purpose of criminological study of the mechanism of intentional criminal behavior and the place of these characteristics in it. Given the prevailing ideas about the elements of the mechanism of criminal behavior substantiates the impact of social status and the role of the individual in her moral formation, the origin and development of criminal motivation, the value for specific situations and the process of committing a crime. However, the author refrains from conclusions about the causal relationship between the status-role position of the person and Commission of the crime, and on the basis of sociological research finds that the social status and role determine, on the one hand, the content and nature of the interactions of the individual with society, and with another – influence of personal characteristics of the individual, his needs, values, correcting them. In other words, in relation to the mechanism of intentional criminal behavior, social status and role are of dual importance, since they are both internal conditions and external factors of its Commission. So, as internal conditions, they cause the appearance of personality features that are reflected in the features of social perception, motivation and goal-setting. And acting as external factors, social status and role characterize a specific life situation in which a crime is committed and which, being recognized as guilty, also affects the processes of motivation and goal-setting.
Studies have shown that learners’ motivation is a significant predictor of the level of engagement in a MOOC. However, the role of motivation in a MOOC’s completion remains questionable. In our study, we estimated the role of motivation in a MOOC’s completion, controlling for the characteristics of participants and their level of engagement with the course materials. The research database includes the survey and trace data on participants of nine MOOCs related to the economic field, launched on Coursera in 2014–2015. Two research models were created: the first model for all MOOCs’ participants; the second model for university-affiliated participants. The results of the logistic regression showed that learners’ motivation has a significant relationship with a MOOC’s completion. However, not all motives for participation in MOOCs are significantly related to the chances of earning a certificate of completion. Intrinsic motivation, a motive for getting skills that could be useful for changing the workplace, and a motive for earning a certificate significantly increase the chances of a MOOC’s completion. In turn, amotivation has a negative relationship with a MOOC’s completion.
A global focusing on a sustainable economy requires redirection of corporate governance toward sustainability. One of the important ways for management is a quality management as it is focused on continuous improvement of all business processes and therefore – contribute to long-term performance. The basic problems in this case are the searching for the most effective organizational model of quality achievement and the reasons for firm to implement quality management system (QMS) which is relevant to its sustainable business perspective. Insufficiency of the problem development of companies’ stimulation to implement QMS ISO 9000, make the paper urgent. The purpose of the study is an examination of the motivation for QMS ISO 9000 implementation for the emerging economies firms. The informational base of empirical cross country analysis was 2002–2009 data of Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS) of WB and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). Study targets are the firms, which have implemented QMS ISO 9000 and located in the three groups of countries: the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), new members of the EU countries and countries of the Southern Europe - not EU members. The main finding is the identification of similarities and differences in motivations of firms from the tree groups emerging economies, which has implemented QMS ISO 9000.
The paper presents an analysis of empirical data on relationship of study-related learning experiences with students’ psychological well-being and academic success. The data were obtained using the original Activity-Related Experiences Assessment technique (AREA) and a number of additional measures. The results of four studies are presented. The first one was devoted to the psychometric validation of AREA questionnaire. The results confirmed the constructive validity of the model of activity-related experiences. The second study compared experiences associated with different types of activities (study and leisure). Differences in the structure of correlations of experiences related to different activities confirmed that experiences are activity-related rather than personality-related. The third study presents data on the relationship of study-related experiences with personality traits and academic performance. Only the experience of pleasure revealed a significant association with academic performance. The purpose of the last study was identifying the structure and reliability of AREA on the combined sample by CFA using and checking the connection of study-related experiences with indicators of psychological well-being. Experiences of pleasure and meaning were closely related to each other and negatively related to the experience of void, while the experience of effort was hardly associated the other three scores. Experiences of pleasure and meaning reveal predictable direct (and the experience of void the reverse) association with indicators of well-being.
The first part of this book is devoted to the old problem of fundamental motivations that can hardly be approached in another way, other than theoretically. The second part of the book is devoted to new or rather marginal concepts that seem capable to enrich general models of motivational processes. Part three of the book deals with the issues of self-regulation and self-determination; in the last two decades the problems of motivation can be hardly dealt with without touching these issues. The focus of the last part of the book is cultural context and cultural mediation of motivation. This book was planned not as a collection of discoveries to be considered, but rather as a collection of nontrivial views that may turn helpful for making a better sense of the discoveries actually made. (Imprint: Nova)
The article analyzes characteristic properties of mediatexts and their taking into consideration when teaching FFL. Practical part includes authentic texts from French media and Internet sites accompanied by a set of tasks aimed to develop language skills.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.