О роли школы Ньингма в политической и религиозной жизни Тибета (1642–1735)
The rNying-ma-pa School (lit. “The Old School”, also styled “Red Hat School”) traces its origins to the days of the Tibetan Empire, thus, it has existed throughout the whole recorded Tibetan history. However, in the second millennium AD its clerics did not play a significant role in the political development in Tibet. 122 However, its lamas enjoyed much respect of the Tibetans since they were regarded as the custodians of Tibetan traditions as well as of profound Buddhist knowledge and magic practices. The turbulent events that happened in and around Tibet during the 17th and early 18th centuries significantly affected the position of the rNying-ma-pa. The Mongol interference into Tibetan affaires resulted in the domination of the Gelugpa. The Fifth Dalai Lama demonstrated equal respect towards both the Gelugpa and rNying-ma-pa Schools. Among his teachers were prominent rNying-ma-pa lamas and later he himself wrote many works on rNying-ma-pa practices. Also, he encouraged building rNying-ma-pa monasteries which became major centres of that school. He regarded the rNying-ma-pa as a Tibetan national Buddhist school which was linked to the local Tibetan deities and protective rituals, and for those reasons he opposed its propagation outside Tibet among the Mongols and the Manchus. The prosperity of the rNying-ma-pa ended abruptly with the Dzungar invasion of Tibet in 1717. During three years of occupation all rNying-ma-pa monasteries including the most ancient Tibetan monastery bSam-yas were destroyed, many of its hierarchs and ordinary lamas were killed. Among the reasons behind such repressive actions were accusations of sorcery rites aimed at the Dzungars which were performed by the rNying-ma-pa lamas at the request of Lhabzang Khang, the last Khoshot ruler of Tibet. The intervention of the Qing empire led to the expulsion of the Dzungars from Tibet and the end of the rNying-ma-pas’ persecution. However, in 1726 the Yongzheng emperor issued a decree which limited the activities of the rNying-ma-pa inside Tibet in favour of the Gelugpa School. It seems that this decree was incited by the rivalry of the top Beijing lamas as well the need to overcome the consequences of the cruel suppression of the rebellion in Qinghai in 1723–24 accompanied by the destruction of many holy places of the Gelugpas. This imperial decree did not have much effect because after the outbreak of the civil war in Tibet in 1727 Pholhanas who openly demonstrated his respect towards the rNying-ma-pa School became a winner and subsequently the ruler of Tibet.