Тенденции в развитии процессов политической интеграции в Евразийском регионе: теоретико-методологический аспект
The paper examines the theoretical framework for the analysis of contemporary processes of international integration. Thet author applies methodological apparatus of different theories to the analysis of the process of regional integration. This research allows to get closer to understanding the possibility of forming a political union in the Eurasian region.
The article deals with the processes of building the information society and security in the CIS in accordance with modern conditions. The main objective is to review existing mechanisms for the formation of a common information space in the Eurasian region, regarded as one of the essential aspects of international integration. The theoretical significance of the work is to determine the main controls of the regional information infrastructure, improved by the development of communication features in a rapid process.The practical component consists in determining the future policies of the region under consideration in building the information society. The study authors used historical-descriptive approach and factual analysis of events having to do with drawing the contours of today's global information society in the regional refraction.
The main result is the fact that the development of information and communication technologies, and network resources leads to increased threats of destabilization of the socio-political situation in view of the emergence of multiple centers that generate the ideological and psychological background. Keeping focused information policy can not be conceived without the collective participation of States in the first place, members of the group leaders of integration - Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Currently, only produced a comprehensive approach to security in the information field in the Eurasian region, but the events in the world, largely thanks to modern technology, make the search for an exit strategy with a much higher speed. The article contributes to the science of international relations, engaging in interdisciplinary thinking that is associated with a transition period in the development of society. A study of current conditions in their relation to the current socio-political patterns of the authors leads to conclusions about the need for cooperation with the network centers of power in the modern information environment, the formation of alternative models of networking, especially in innovation and scientific and technical areas of information policy, and expanding the integration of the field in this region on the information content.
The article analyzes the rules of the Customs Code of the EurAsEC Customs Union, which are reflected the basic institutions of the Customs Law: Customs Regulations, Customs Territory and Customs Border and legislation. The main institutions of the EurAsEC Customs Union, the system of customs authorities, the legal regime of the information in the customs realm, as well as the procedure for appealing against actions (inaction) of customs bodies and their officials.
Since the Enlightenment, the driving concepts of Western civilisation have been the belief in its own superiority and the theory of linear progress in human society. According to this understanding, the West (firstly Europe, and later the United States) reached the highest and most advanced level of development, with all other countries moving along the same continuum, although lagging behind and located at various stages of proximity to this ideal. In fact, many civilisations have considered themselves superior to others. The Ancient Greeks, Romans, medieval Chinese and many others all believed that they had reached the pinnacle of social development. However, the last few centuries of industrial success and military power have reinforced the theory of the West’s superiority, with the result that Western notions of progress have long captured the thinking of most of the world. During the Enlightenment, the West’s idea that its civilisation was superior only changed in form, shifting from the superiority of Christianity as a fundamentally new set of teachings that, with the West as its vehicle, launched a new start to history, to a more secular theory of the West leading the world in social and economic progress. In place of Christian notions of morality and the meaning of life came a new, higher ideal of building a better world through industrial development, a market economy and individual freedoms. These ideas formed the basis of all dominant Western political doctrines of the twentieth century, from colonialism to Marxism and from Nazism to modern liberalism. And, despite the significant differences between them, all of these concepts shared the common idea that the future world would be unified, with the more ‘progressive’ West serving as its foundation and all others gradually catching up to its standards. With the passage of time, the superiority in force that the West had enjoyed began to weaken. Western weapons systems spread throughout the world, making it increasingly difficult to control ‘undeveloped’ regions. Decolonisation led to greater self-awareness in non-Western parts of the globe. However, the sense of national pride in most of the newly formed states initially found expression in theories calling for local development to catch up to the West, thereby granting tacit acceptance of the paradigm of Western superiority. These theories essentially sought to use Western economic accomplishments to achieve their own breakthroughs, with the aim of joining the modern (Western) world. The global split between two systems and the fact that some regimes were oriented towards the Soviet Union was of no great significance. After all, the Soviet Union also considered itself to be part of world civilisation, with the only difference being that, as the leader of world socialism, it believed that it had progressed further in social development and that the ‘capitalist world’ had fallen behind.
The recent crisis in Ukraine cast a spotlight on those countries located between Russia and the EU, a region that had long existed beneath the radar of international politics. Indeed, even its name remains indeterminate: the term 'post-Soviet' is too encompassing (it could also designate Estonia or Tajikistan) while the notion of 'Eastern Europe' has long lost any geographical anchor. Instead, this space is often named after regional powers’ attempts to shape it: as the EU’s 'Eastern Neighbourhood' or as Russia’s 'Near Abroad'. The new region-building endeavour pursued by Russia through Eurasian integration frameworks is a crucial development in this regard.
On the 29 of May 2014, Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan signed the Treaty establishing the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), which extends the provisions of the existing Eurasian Customs Union (ECU) and comes into being in 2015. This integration regime has been lauded by Russian President Vladimir Putin as a new, better version of the European Union, and castigated by US Secretary of State Hilary Clinton as a new form of the Soviet Union. This report shows that it is neither. The EEU is a modern and far-reaching attempt at economic integration, but one that is weakened by internal and conceptual contradictions. What was designed as a geo-economic framework is increasingly becoming a geopolitical issue. In attempting to counter the influence of the EU’s alternative integration regime (the Eastern Partnership), Russia has shifted its diplomacy from persuasion to coercion, and Moscow is increasingly resorting to using the EEU as a foreign policy tool. The countries of the entredeux – literally, something placed between two things – are being forced to face to a geopolitical choice they had been trying to avoid, or at least to defuse. Divisive domestic politics, separatism, structural dependencies and the economic and political calculations of internal actors are key factors mediating and complicating their choice. This report focuses on these issues that are too often overlooked in the debate on Russia-EU regional competition.
Author analyzes the advantages and shortages of Eurasian integration project with a view of Russia's perspective. For Russia it's a strong strategic and geopolitical choice that is necessare for future development.