Герцен как прототип Ставрогина
In the world philology the discussion on identity of the prototype of Stavrogin, the primary character of “Demons” by А. Dostoevsky. This character is the key one for Dostoevsky’s views on Russian revolutionary radicalism. The author of the article finds a number of correspondences in the life and activities of A. Herzen and the novel’s character. Dostoevsky himself scattered numerous hints in the novel about its hero prototype.
In his article the author considers one of the key phenomenon of the Russian intellectual culture – university as the condition of Russian elite entering the level of a European civilization, and moreover as the element, that contributed to Europeasation of the whole country. The tragedy of Russian education can clearly be seen in the fate of Russian universities. The autocracy tried to limit the freedom of science, and Bolsheviks simply exiled the Russian professorate from the country.
A.Herzen as a scholar of contemporary history: Polish aspects. Herzen considered the Polish national movement as the main ally of Russian revolutionaries in their struggle against autocracy and highly appreciated the Poles' sacrifice. However the moderate nature of Polish social doctrine and demands to restore the former eastern border of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth caused Herzen's critical evaluations. The Polish partners of Herzen were not ready to share all of his ideas. Differences of the programs complicated Russian-Polish revolutionary cooperation. Analyzing the Russian-Polish relations of the last three decades, Herzen proposed his own vision of the Russian Empire's contemporary history.
In the article the author analyses Dඈඌඍඈඒൾඏඌඒ´s story “Bobok”, which concerns the idea of relationship between life and death. The text describes living of people who don´t die, or rather who are already dead in their lifetime. The story follows up the topic used in the prior prose “Notes from the Dead House”. Particularity of the story “Bobok” is based on the impossibility of a dialogue between “a body and a soul” in a sense of the medieval tradition – here souls are rotting together with bodies, their corporeal life continues after the death. It is a specifi c image of immortality (life after life) and one of the most dreadfull metaphor of the life in Russia. The author percieves his work also as a dialogue between Dඈඌඍඈඒൾඏඌඒ and Pඅൺඍඈ.
This paper recounts how the initial influence of Hegelian ideas in Russian during the 1830s and 40s acted as the catalyst for a complex process of personal and philosophical development, which eventually transformed the youthful members of Moscow's philosophical circles into the leaders of Russia's 'liberation movement.' Focusing in particular on Vissarion Belinsky, Mikhail Bakunin, and Alexander Herzen, the paper traces their tortuous personal development from 'the crisis of the beautiful soul' to the notorious phase of 'reconciliation with reality' and, finally, to the distinct historical self-consciousness that would prove decisive for their role in Russian history. Ultimately, the story of early Russian Hegelianism offers us a poignant perspective on the interaction between philosophy and life and on the emergence of a unique type of social identity.