Coping Behavior and Difficult Life Situations of Russian School-Students With Different Intelligence Levels
Coping behaviour plays a great role in solving an interpersonal conflict. Time perspective, hardiness, self-efficacy, achievement motivation, affiliation motivation, and locus of control can be considered personality coping-resources. The combination of them and the degree of their intensity can be connected with the choice of specific coping strategies. Therefore, the goal of the research was investigating personality types of coping behaviour in an interpersonal conflict. The results of the empirical research (331 respondents) are given in this article. Classification of personality types showing various features of coping behaviour in a situation of an interpersonal conflict was the result of the research. Four personality types were differentiated - dependent, steady, unsteady and diffuse. The research allows us to suggest that the hardiness level has become the main factor in the choice of coping strategies. When it is not high, a person chooses emotional strategies, and strongly pronounced hardiness determines the choice of cognitive strategies.
Coping with problems depends on a person’s causal attribution of the problems. Coping strategies and attitudes are different if the person thinks that the problem to be coped with is: (a) caused by reasons independent of anybody’s intent and intervention; (b) created by somebody with hostile intent; (c) created by somebody with good intent (e.g., to create useful, developing difficulties, etc.) Opportunities of integration of approaches to coping behavior and to hostile intent attribution are discussed. Results of a study of coping with problems created by others vs. problems caused by reasons independent of anybody’s intent are presented.
The article describes the program of psychological training sessions on coping behavior for survivors of sextrafficking. The program includes art therapy, Gestalt and existential techniques of group work, as well as elements of social-psychological training. In addition to group training sessions we held individual psychological counseling session with the survivors, using cognitive therapy, systemic family counseling and psychotrauma work techniques.
This article is devoted to studying the role of a personality's time perspective in choosing coping strategies in situations of interpersonal conflicts. The interrelation between different types of coping strategies (cognitive, emotional and behavioral) and the orientation of time perspective is considered. F.Zimbardo's technique, which defines the orientation of personality time perspective, and E.Heim's technique, directed on exploring coping strategies, are used in our research. The sample consisted of 295 participants - 156 women and 139 men, the average age - 32 years. The results obtained through our research have shown that future orientation in situations of interpersonal conflicts is directly connected with the choice of cognitive and behavioral coping strategies, while the orientation to the negative past results in emotional coping strategies. The person's orientation to the fatalistic present corresponds to non-adaptive behavioral strategies with few coping techniques, retreat and avoidance of conflict resolution.
Coping behaviour plays a great role in solving a difficult, conflict situation. Hardiness cand be considered as a personality resource of coping behaviour in a conflict. In our research we use the following methods: S. Maddi’s questionnaire (hardiness) and A. Heim’s technique (coping strategies). 227 people, 108 men and 119 women, participated in the research. The correlation analysis has shown that strongly pronounced hardiness is connected with the choice of adaptive coping strategies, and feebly pronounced hardiness is a predictor of the choice of non-adaptive emotional strategies. Hardiness and its components - commitment and control, have a positive correlation with adaptive and relatively adaptive variants of cognitive, emotional and behavioural strategies and a negative correlation with the choice of non-adaptive strategies. Challenge has a negative correlation with adaptive behavioural strategies. In the conclusion, we show that studying the influence of hardiness on a person’s choice of coping strategies in conflict situations can help to prevent similar conflicts in the future. As such, the findings of our research can be considered as a good prognostic and diagnostic tool.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.