Who Thinks inside of Me? Some Aspects of Merab Mamardashvili`s Theory of Consciousness
In this article I look at the methodology of one the most unique figures in Russian philosophy –– Merab Mamardašvili –– who was known for his focus on consciousness. According to him, the application of the subject–object dualism to the analysis of consciousness leads to a series of complications. Within the phenomenological framework of intentionality there is an intertwining of perspective and object to which this perspective is directed. As soon as we try to apply to consciousness subject–object schemes, then we immediately come across paradoxes. It is impossible to determine consciousness by means of subject–object, not only because it is neither an object nor a subject, but also because consciousness inevitably turns out to be “prior” to such distinctions.
Demonstrating uncertain broadened understanding of epistemology as a common ground of phenomenology of religion and philosophical phenomenology that provides a possibility of even pseudo-phenomenological references the article proposes to specify epistemology in strict distinction from values on the basis of qualitative distinction between cognitive and emotional structures of consciousness. A possibility of such way of basing is confirmed by an example of Hebraic tradition that shows feelings, imbued with them sensa- tions and images non-cognitively. It is pointed out in the article a possibility of understanding the unity of consciousness on the basis of world itself, not on the basis of sensations as cognitive, the unity of feelings and values is also pointed out. The proposed way of epistemology specification would allow to correlate any non-positivist methodologies with scientific criteria, to overcome phenomenology of religion uncertainty as a confusion of research and theological spheres to the science of religion and would promote cognitive strictness of phenomenology.
The article is the response to Mikhail Nemtsev's article published in the same issue. Author proposes to weigh up actual relevancy and significance of the so-called 'Soviet philosophy". The way of its development, in his opinion should be understood as a gradual self-development in hostile ideological environment leading to formation of professional philosophy in the USSR. Studies in unusual personal histories, proposed by Nemtsev, would not be beneficial in the research.
This paper considers the theory of objects of Alexius Meinong (1853–1920) in the light of discussions between himself and Bertrand Russell at the beginning of XX century. Meinong’s conception has made significant contribution into the problem of nonexistent objects that still remains one of the most debated in contemporary philosophy. Here author aims to show how theory of objects as such came into being and how its main ideas were discussed and criticized in subsequent philosophical thought.
This article is devoted to conceptual translation of the terms "transcendence" and, connected with the former, "symbol". Difficulties which appear in the translation of those concepts into the language of contemporary culture are due to the fact that the terms are descriptive, not explanatory. This indicates a special type of ontology, that refers to Plato. Symbol, which is at the same time transcendent and immanent, will be analyzed through the examples of Merab Mamardashvili's philosophy and Andrey Tarkovsky's films. Their understanding of symbol is linked to Pavel Florensky's philosophy of art and Pseudo-Dionysius's theology of symbol.
The author analyzes Dostoevsky's ideas about confession and theodicy and shows how they were influenced by Vladimir Solov'ev and St. Augustine
The present catalogue contains abstracts for some 150 volumes, among which books, periodicals, miscellanies, published by the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the principal institute in Russia for academic research in all kinds of philosophical knowledge. These works, written by eminent Russian scholars, cover such fi elds as the history of Russian, Western and Oriental philosophy, ethics and aesthetics, synergetics and epistemology, social and political philosophy and concentrate on problems that have attained particular importance in the age of globalization and growth of national self-consciousness.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.