Имперская форма и политические порядки различной эволюционной сложности
A major methodological challenge in study of empires and civilizations is the application of both terms to conceptualize highly divergent phenomena from specific facts and practices to general mental constructions like a mission of a civilization of imperial form of government. Conceptual research tools should be ranged according to the levels of generalization. Thus, the most abstract instrument of morphological analysis is imperial form. Imperial formulae are its configurations that apply to various geopolitical and historical conjunctures. Finally, specific orders help to conceptualize the factual tissue of civilizations and empires. Morphology of open and closed systems is also considered as a relevant conceptual tool. Notions of open and limited access orders is critically reappraised.