Динамика жизненного цикла локальной культуры Эльзаса
In March 2011 scholars met in Prague at the conference Interculturalism, Meaning and Identity. This event revitalised this important theme related to Diversity and Recognition. The terms 'interculturalism' and 'integration' are experiencing a renaissance. As the extent of human movement between nations increases attempts are made to balance cultural difference and social cohesion. In some contexts immigration and settlement policies are becoming more draconian in response. Because of this, interculturalism can take on many meanings. However, pivotal to the way interculturalism is understood is identification. As the relationship between nation, ethnicity and language becomes more complex so too do the ways in which people represent them selves. The cultural resources drawn on and the processes used to form identities are examined in this truly international collection. So too are the implications of these developments for how we theorise culture, meaning and identity.
Inferences on the development and morphology of extinct brachiopods must be informed by the ontogeny and shell ornamentation of extantbrachiopods. Although the adult shells of extant brachiopods are wellstudied,detailed descriptions of the embryonic and juvenile shells of extant lingulides are lacking. Here, we describe in detail the shells of juveniles of Lingula anatina Lamarck, 1801 from Vietnam and the Republic of the Philippines. The following previously unknown properties of the lingulide shell are described: (i) a distinct border between the protegulum and the brephic shell; (ii) drapes that develop on both the protegulum and brephic shell; and (iii) the notched anterior margin of the brephic shell. The drapes and cogs on the brephic shell may becaused by the formation of setal follicles during the planktonic stage. Specimens of L. anatina from the Philippines have larger brephic shells than those from Vietnam probably because the former have a longer planktonic stage. Based on comparisons of the first-formed shells of extant brachiopods with published data on fossil brachiopods, we suggest that the life cycle of extant lingulides, in which planktotrophic juveniles with a shell hatch from the egg envelopes, is the mostevolutionarily advanced brachiopod life cycle and appeared in the Early Silurian. We suggest criteria for determining the type of life cycle based on the structure of the first-formed shell of brachiopods. Finally, we consider hypothetical scenarios of life cycles of fossil brachiopods including true planktotrophic larvae in the Cambrian linguliforms.
The purpose of this article is to provide a mathematical model to numerically estimate the parameters of the life cycle of the technical documentation on high-tech enterprises. Methodology of constructing such a model based on the consideration of statistical regularities of the life cycle of technical documentation involved in different projects. It uses data from the knowledge base of the enterprise. This work has revealed the basic rules of constructing mathematical models of similar estimates of the parameters of the life cycle of technical documentation as a result. This article is focused on the duration as a parameter of the life cycle. The constructed model analysis is universal and applicable to almost any high technology enterprise, which has its own knowledge base. Sure thing that the task of evaluating the various parameters of the life cycle of the technical paper is very relevant. Managers often must be aware of the total material costs of the project with a specific set of technical documentation before it starts. The constructed model is based on statistical regularities that exist for various projects in the enterprise, separated in time, thereby allowing the manager to have an idea about the project before it starts.
This chapter proposes an unfolding view of the EU as a sort of post-modern neo-medieval empire, in which narratives of othering towards Central and Eastern Europe preserve their salience.
In this paper we introduce distinction between “ontologically non-fregean” logics and “pragmatically non-fregean” ones; by means of such distinction a classification of non-fregean logics is presented as well. We believe that NFL must be considered as a many-leveled structure; each level taken separately may vary in different way – from classical to non-classical. It is not these levels themselves that we should call “fregean” or “non-fregean”, but the ways they are stuck together within the whole system. The more levels a system has, the more kinds of “fregean” and “non-fregean” we can find in it.
Using data on foreign borrowing, I identify Russian banks that were affected by the sudden stop of external financing caused by the Lehman Brothers’ collapse. Applying the difference-in-difference method, I compare these «affected» banks to «unaffected» ones and find that the Russian Central Bank’s (CBR) anti-crisis financial assistance primarily went to the former group. Tracing the impact of the CBR’s liquidity infusions on banks’ portfolio allocation decisions, I find that banks used CBR funds not only to pay out foreign debt, but also to accumulate cash deposits in non-resident banks. I also find that affected banks increased their holdings of market securities significantly more than unaffected ones, which suggests that the CBR’s bailout policies impacted their risk-taking strategies. While there was no significant difference in corporate lending growth between the two groups after the sudden stop, lending to borrowers with weaker banking relationships (individuals and entrepreneurs) decreased more among affected banks.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.