Как оценить стоимость человеческой жизни?
The paper studies a problem of optimal insurer’s choice of a risk-sharing policy in a dynamic risk model, so-called Cramer-Lundberg process, over infinite time interval. Additional constraints are imposed on residual risks of insureds: on mean value or with probability one. An optimal control problem of minimizing a functional of the form of variation coefficient is solved. We show that: in the first case the optimum is achieved at stop loss insurance policies, in the second case the optimal insurance is a combination of stop loss and deductible policies. It is proved that the obtained results can be easily applied to problems with other optimization criteria: maximization of long-run utility and minimization of probability of a deviation from mean trajectory.
The principal result of this research is that the valuable skills have a negative and significant effect on alcohol abuse. We found that a higher professional level is consistent with a stronger negative relationship between earnings and alcohol-related behaviors and problems. The explanation of the result is proposed in that the pecuniary losses imposed on an individual by alcohol-related physical inability are positively conditioned by the valuable skills.
The chapter studies a dynamic risk model defined on infinite time interval, where both insurance and per-claim reinsurance policies are chosen by the insurer in order to minimize a functional of the form of variation coefficient under constraints imposed with probability one on insured's and reinsurer's risks. We show that the optimum is achieved at constant policies, the optimal reinsurance is a partial stop loss reinsurance and the optimal insurance is a combination of stop loss and deductible policies. The results are illustrated by a numerical example involving uniformly distributed claim sizes.
This paper represents an initial report on findings for a study aimed at analyzing several key aspects of middle class development in the Russian regions (subjects of Federation - oblasts, krays, autonomous republics), namely: Federal and regional government programs to stimulate the growth of the middle class (content, tools of implementation, effectiveness); Behavioral strategies and economic behavior (consumption patterns propensity to save, investment) of different sections of Russian middle class; Middle class value orientation and political preferences (including preferences for democracy).
In this manual all the information presented in the form of illustrative material: inter-related schemes, tables, formulas. It consists of six thematic sections, covering various aspects of the insurance business: on the characteristics of the types of insurance to the financial analysis of the insurance company. The Handbook is an important contributing element to the author of the educational-methodical allowances (SAR): the abstract of lectures «Insurance business» and «Insurance» (test-tasks). The scheme-course you can use when reading the following disciplines: «Insurance», «Insurance of investment», «finances of insurance organizations and the analysis of the insurance operations», «risk Management», «Actuarial calculations and insurance». Students should be familiar with the basic economic categories, methods and tools of financial analysis. It is intended for students and listeners of the programs of higher professional education, training on the specialty «Finance and credit», «accounting and audit», «Economics and management at enterprises», «Management of organization».