Grammaticalization and Semantics of Complex Predicates in Kalmyk
The paper describes Kalmyk complex predicates, based on the empirical data of linguistic fieldwork. The focus of this investigation is on the semantics and morphosyntactic properties of the complex predicates in Kalmyk. In Kalmyk, several auxiliaries (bää‑ ‘to be’, jov‑ ‘to go’, kevt‑ ‘to lie’ and suu‑ ‘to sit’) belong to the imperfective domain. Perfective semantics is the basis for complex predicates with the primary verbs ork‑ ‘to put’ and od‑ ‘to go away’, whereas the verbs av‑ ‘to take’ and ög‑ ‘to give’ express reflexive benefactive and benefactive meanings. The verb xaj‑ ‘to throw’ expresses intensivity and pluractionality. The study shows that the Kalmyk aspectual system arose as a result of grammaticalization.
Progressive periphrases in German are analyzed in a quantitative and qualitative way. The subject of the analysis is progressive constructions in the XVII–XIX centuries. It is stated that the process of their formation was not homogeneous, as there were two forms of progressive periphrases during the IX–XV centuries that were existing concurrently and were interchanging. It is determined that in any period the most frequent periphrases are im-construction and am-construction, moreover, the frequency of the latter is increasing. It is confi rmed that the process of grammaticalization mostly referred to contraction of locative prepositions and defi nite articles, which lost their lexical meaning in the development of progressive periphrases.
Im Beitrag wird die Regelung der Abfolge von althochdeutschen schwachbetonten Wörtern ProNom.> ProRefl.> ProDat.> ProAkk.> ProGen.> (Adv) behandelt, die den Sequenzbeschränkungen für Klitika sehr nahe steht. An Beispielsätzen aus Otfrid wird das Zusammenspiel der Faktoren aufgedeckt, die das widersprüchliche Verhalten der Blockmitspieler und Schwankungen in der Wortstellung beeinflussen (phonetisch abgeschwächt ~ phonetisch gewichtig /gereimt, desemantisiert ~ vollwertig beziehungsweise fokussiert, kasusgerechte Abfolge ~ Abfolge nach semantischen Rollen u.a.). Die althochdeutschen Sequenzbeschränkungen werden als eine Etappe der Grammatikalisierung von Vollwörtern zu Klitika eingeordnet, die einen Einblick in die möglichen Mechanismen des diachronen Wandels liefert.
The article focuses on the aspectual verbal form of performative verbs 'swear' and 'promise' in the proposition of commissive utterances. The author emphasises the aspectual verbal forms relating to three temporal perspectives: present, future and past. The author also highlights the frequency and features of temporal perspectives in the proposition of verbs 'swear' and 'promise'.
Bilingual education including, on the one hand, access to dominating language, and, on the other, - teaching in minority languages or teaching only languages themselves at school is an important part of language politics of a state. In many regions we observe a paradoxical situation: school education does not promote acquisition of a disappearing language, though it is highly valued by members of community. The article considers features of teaching minority languages at school in the Russian Federation on two examples - Nivkh and Kalmyk. Interviews with parents, pupils, former pupils and teachers allow to describe teaching native language at school as a procedure of maintaining identity of community.
Semantic roles have continued to intrigue the linguists for more than four decades now, starting with determining their kind and number, with their morphological expression, and with their interaction with argument structure and syntax. The focus in this volume is on typological and historical issues. The papers focus on the cross-linguistic identification of semantic-role equivalents, on the regularity of, and exceptions concerning change and grammaticalization in semantic roles, the variation in encoding the roles of direction and experiencer in specific languages, presenting evidence for identifying a new semantic role of speech addressee in Caucasian languages, on semantic roles in word formation, and finally a cross-linguistic comparison of the functions and the grammaticalization of the ethical dative in some Indo-European languages. The book will be of interest to anyone involved with case and semantic roles, with the syntax semantic interface, and with semantic change an grammaticalization.