Финансирование образования: итоги 20-летнего периода
This article presents estimates of the level of participation of Russians in adult vocational training, as well as the educational efficiency in terms of employees’ private returns on education in the light of the post-industrial modernization of the Russian education. Speсial attention is paid to changes which have occurred in this sphere under the influence of the financial crisis and the subsequent stagnation of the Russian economy (2008–2013), compared to the recovery period of economic growth in the 2000s. Our research is based on data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS).
Our findings confirm that the earnings of those who participated in adult vocational training initially grew faster than the earnings of those who did not. The returns on adult education were moderately and negatively affected by the crisis and the stagnation of the Russian economy. This is also revealed in the prolonged decrease of participation in adult vocational training and the growing uncertainty of its outcomes. These findings are discussed in contrast to the results found in the literature.
In discussing our findings we draw attention to the minor role played by the corporate sector in financing adult vocational training in modern Russia, compared with Russia’s late Soviet period and with the situation in developed countries. To explain this phenomenon we employ theoretical models by Becker, and Acemoglu and Pischke who explain the distribution of investment in general and specific parts of human capital by specific labour market configurations (e.g. state regulation of employment and skill premiums, level of inter-firm mobility). We conclude that adult vocational training in Russia features both positive and negative trends, and emphasize the constraints which limit the successful post-industrial educational modernization in Russia.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.