The paper describes the necessary metaphysical grounds and central points of J. Searle’s general theory of social reality. It shows how in a world of physical particles and fields of force, the diversity of social life is constructed with the help of one kind of logical and linguistic operations, i.e. declarations of status functions.
The Realist interpretation of 'War and Peace' - articulated by Martin Wight and Stanley Hoffmann - is based on Tolstoy's understanding of history as it is elaborated in his account of the Napoleonic invasion in the second epilogue of the book. There Tolstoy puts forward a mechanistic view of international relations which are assumed to be governed by inexorable laws of history determining human behaviour and limiting man's exercise of free will. However, Tolstoy's subjection of man to the workings of impenetrable laws of history in the second epilogue is at variance with a multiplicity of conscious moral choices that his three main characters - Nikolay Rostov, Andrey Bolkonsky and Pierre Bezukhov - make throughout the book. It is argued that the different treatment of the freedom vs. necessity problem in the fictional and historical narrative can only be understood contextually, i.e. from within Tolstoy' rejection of the Enlightenment tradition of scientific and moral inquiry.
A work of art is by its nature a product of creative invention. The author’s existence lies beyond the fictional world he created. A fictional narrative, no matter how untruthworthy in the empirical sense, cannot be deemed morally flawed, since the very phenomenon of artistic creativity presupposes the right to free invention. The nature of the moral falsity of the art of socialist realism is not empirical but metaphysical. It consists in the implicit denial of the reader’s outward position in regard to the depicted world. By requiring of its reader to treat its narrative as «life» itself and not as a fictional artifact, socialist realism loses the moral immunity that belongs to products of artistic creativity.