### Article

## On Boolean matrices with full factor rank

It is demonstrated that every (0, 1)-matrix of size n×m having Boolean rank n contains a column with at least √n/2 − 1 zero entries. This bound is shown to be asymptotically optimal. As a corollary, it is established that the size of a full-rank Boolean matrix is bounded from above by a function of its tropical and determinantal ranks.

We prove that the determinant of an n x n 01-matrix with at most n+k non-zero entries does not exceed α^k with α=4^(1/3)≈1.316074.

Among different rank functions on tropical matrices, there is one known as tropical rank which is a lower bound for any other. Here we introduce a new concept (for being opposed to tropical rank, it is called *arctic*) which gives an upper bound for other ranks. Our definition is based on the perimeter notion previously studied for rank-one matrices. We study the arithmetic behavior of the arctic rank and compare it with that of other rank functions. Finally, we provide an algorithm computing the arctic rank. We show that no algorithm is likely to find the arctic rank in polynomial time by proving that computing the perimeter of a matrix is an NP-hard problem.

We develop the technique useful for studying the problem of factoring nonnegative matrices. We illustrate our method, based on the tools from linear algebra over a semiring, by applying it to studying the problem of existence of a rank-three matrix with full nonnegative rank equal to *n*.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.