Undistinguishing Statistics of Objectively Distinguishable Objects: Thermodynamics and Superfluidity of Classical Gas
In the present paper, we describe an approach to thermodynamics that does not involve Bogolyubov chains or Gibbs ensembles. We present isotherms, isochores, and isobars of various pure gases, as well as binodals, i.e., lines along which gas becomes liquid, and spinodals (endpoints of isotherms). We study supercritical phenomena for values of temperature and pressure above the critical ones. A lot of attention is paid to the region of negative pressures. The superfluid component for supercritical phenomena is described, as well as the thermodynamics of nanostructures and superfluidity in nanotubes.
The relationship between thermodynamics and economics has been known for a long time. The term ``thermoeconomics'' has even appeared. However, several aspects of the old thermodynamics are unacceptable in economics. For example, experts in thermodynamics believe that the diamond crystal is in the metastable state, and in due time will be transformed into graphite. However, these experts can hardly convince businessmen to part with their ancient diamonds.
The laws of economics require that the old conceptions of thermodynamicsa be mathematically scrutinized and reviewed.
The correspondence principle for quantum statistics, classical statistics and economics which associates the number of particles with the amount of money, the chemical potential with the nominal percentage, the negative pressure with debts, and the law of economic preference allowed to obtain agreement of the general theory of thermoeconomics with the latest experimental data.
It is well known that the supercritical state of a gas has great dissolving capacity. In this paper, the mathematical reason for this phenomenon is studied in great detail.
We consider certain spaces of functions on the circle, which naturally appear in harmonic analysis, and superposition operators on these spaces. We study the following question: which functions have the property that each their superposition with a homeomorphism of the circle belongs to a given space? We also study the multidimensional case.
We consider the spaces of functions on the m-dimensional torus, whose Fourier transform is p -summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of the exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase. The results generalize to the multidimensional case the one-dimensional results obtained by the author earlier in “Quantitative estimates in the Beurling—Helson theorem”, Sbornik: Mathematics, 201:12 (2010), 1811 – 1836.
We consider the spaces of function on the circle whose Fourier transform is p-summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase.