Проблемы координации мер научно-технологической, инновационной и промышленной политики в России
The article deals with the problems of interaction between science and technology, innovation and industrial policy in Russia. In spite of the substantial intensification of the state policy in establishing of the new elements of the national innovation system, the coordination between different policies continues to remain weak that leads to inefficient use of resources under tight budget constraints. The author offers a set of actions aimed at improving the coordination.
Economic development of Singapore has become one of the vivid examples of transition of a developing country towards a group of First World economies. Singapore's economic success was achieved mainly due to the interventionist measures implemented by the Government and embodied in the industrial policy.
As the economies of western countries move from primarily resource-based to knowledge-based, and trade liberalization limits what governments can do through direct action, the landscape of innovation is changing and policymakers must react accordingly. This exciting new book examines the challenges that policy makers face in responding to a new environment. The book addresses how governments are now seeking to drive innovation through new forms of R&D policies, through public procurement, skills development, entrepreneurship and innovation culture to name but a few of the approaches.
Innovation Policy Challenges for the 21st Century explores these and other contemporary issues in innovation, reviewing the state of the art literature and consolidating current thinking at the frontiers of innovation. The volume debates and presents scattered and anonymous material in a coherent way, with a particular focus is on ‘hot topics’ in the field of innovation studies that have been previously under-researched. The book is divided into four key themes: government as a key actor in the innovation process, entrepreneurs as innovators, skills and competences required to maintain and improve innovation performance in Europe and finally, the wider context in which innovation policy develops.
Among key problems of strategic development of the Russian Federation – a gain of the advanced positions in a global competition, an exit on standards of a life of the developed countries. Methods of achievement of the proclaimed priorities among which predominate an emphasis on realisation of innovations and optimisation of use of regional and human potentials are defined also. It means also working out of essentially new domestic industrial policy which main objective – stimulation of transition of a national economy on the way of development allowing a science and hi-tech sectors of the industry to become by the locomotive of economic growth, to provide adequate conditions for development for industrial sector of economy. Many questions concerning a theme of research carried out in the given collection, successfully dare in the European countries. Therefore studying a positive European experience important for decrease in vulnerability of domestic economy in the face of many global problems. These problems demand today adequate reactions at level of an industrial policy, start of new industrial strategy. In this work it is a lot of the specific proposals directed on the further development of the Russian industry. Authors have formulated both new tactical and strategic ideas, not ordinary decisions for achievement of leadership in the field in the future.
Chapter 6 presents an analysis of Russian innovation system accompanied by an overview of state science, technology and innovation (STI) policy practice.
The authors cover the most urgent institutional cleavages, including the split-offs of science and industry, issues of institutional model of the R&D sector, sectoral discrepancies and regional polarization.
An outline of STI policy framework evolution is presented, including the most recent Strategy for Socio-Economic Development of Russia till 2020 topics. A special regard is paid to linkage-stimulating policy instruments, including grants for joint research for Universities, R&D organisations and companies, technology platforms, regional innovation clusters program and elaboration of innovation development plans for state-owned companies.
Over the last two decades national policy makers drew special attention to the implementation of policy tools which foster international cooperation in the fields of science, technology, and innovation. In this paper, we look at cases of Russian-German collaboration to examine the initiatives of the Russian government aimed at stimulating the innovation activity of domestic corporations and small and medium enterprises. The data derived from the interviews with companies’ leaders show positive effects of bilateral innovative projects on the overall business performance alongside with major barriers hindering international cooperation. To overcome these barriers we provide specific suggestions relevant to the recently developed Russian Innovation Strategy 2020.
The authors of this paper present the results of their studies of genesis of the notion «innovation» and adjacent terms in regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation, since 1998.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.