Человекоцентрированный подход в психологии, психотерапии, образовании и политике (к 100-летию со дня рождения К.Роджерса)
Formation of Person-centered approach (PCA ), built on client-centered psychotherapy is a history of expansion of psychotherapy in different spheres of human activity - education, business, medicine, politics. All this history proves that psychotherapeutic work, full of humanity and managed on person-to-person relations, has huge transformation potential of any human relations(educational, business, medical, and political). Within the expansion PCA no education, no business, no medicine, no politics, there is only the relations between people. Alternative perspective of PCA development (Schmid, 2012) suggests its inclusion in these spheres of social life. This perspective, the expected adoption of the "game rules" that exists in these social spheres means the inevitable dissolution in them PCA.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.