Психодиагностика уровня когнитивного инсайта: результаты апробации русскоязычной версии шкалы когнитивного инсайта А. Бека
In Beck's cognitive theory cognitive insight is defined as a capability to appraise and correct misinterpretations or beliefs that are inappropriate for the situation. This paper is devoted to development and validation of Russian version of the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. The sample comprises 1029 subjects aged 16-17. Russian version of the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale is found to be fully consistent with English version in terms of test-retest reliability, internal consistency and factor structure. Convergent validity of the scale is supported by significant relations between cognitive insight level and severity of psychopathology, seeking social support, hardiness, and reflexivity. Regression analysis shows that regardless of the severity of psychiatric symptoms the level of cognitive insight predicts the readiness for psychotherapy.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.