Naming actions in non-fluent aphasia: an fMRI study of compensatory reorganization of brain activity
Key characteristics of non-fluent (Broca, motor) aphasia are, among others, verb finding difficulties and effortful speech output. These characteristics are related to different levels of speech production (lexical retrieval and motor execution). This study was aimed at identifying patterns of its reorganization depending on the locus of the linguistic deficit in patients with non-fluent aphasia.
This paper aims to tackle the problem of brain network classification with machine learning algorithms using spectra of networks’ matrices. Two approaches are discussed: first, linear and tree-based models are trained on the vectors of sorted eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix, the Laplacian matrix and the normalized Laplacian; next, SVM classifier is trained with kernels based on information divergence between the eigenvalue distributions. The latter approach gives promising results in the classification of autism spectrum disorder versus typical development and of the carriers versus noncarriers of an allele associated with the high risk of Alzheimer disease.
This paper aims to demonstrate some clue difficulties of meaning and naming problem in two contrasting approaches: descriptivism and causal theory of reference and then suggests another option which descends to structural linguistics. Due to the structural point of view the author tries to clarify some underlined causes of this two approaches`s argument which is still in process. According to structural version the meaning is not a self-identical entity and therefore it is nor a name, neither a description.
51st Academy of Aphasia Proceedings
Clinical Neurophysiology is dedicated to publishing scholarly reports on the pathophysiology underlying diseases of the peripheral and central nervous system of humans. Reports on clinical trials that use neurophysiological measures as endpoints are encouraged, as are manuscripts on integrated neuroimaging of peripheral and central nervous function including, but not limited to, functional MRI, brain mapping, MEG, EEG, PET, ultrasound, and other neuroimaging modalities. Studies on normal human neurophysiology are welcome, if they are relevant to disease or clinical applications. Studies on animals and technical reports must have clear applicability to human disease. Case reports may be considered (exclusively as Letters-to-the-Editor), if implying substantial advancement of knowledge. Clinical Neurophysiology covers epilepsy, developmental clinical neurophysiology, psychophysiology and psychopathology, motor control and movement disorders, somatosensory disorders including pain, motor neuron diseases, neuromuscular diseases, neuropathies, sleep and disorders of consciousness, auditory and vestibular disorders, aging, Alzheimer's disease, other dementias, other psychiatric disorders, autonomic disorders, neural plasticity and recovery, intraoperative and ICU monitoring, and therapeutic clinical neurophysiology including non-invasive and invasive brain stimulation. All studies published in Clinical Neurophysiology must stand on their own and make a substantial contribution to the literature. The journal does not afford a high priority to 'pilot' or 'preliminary' studies or to negative studies that do not advance knowledge. Reports with a focus on education or clinical practice, case reports, methodological and technical reports and studies reporting normative data on healthy subjects are preferentially being considered in Clinical Neurophysiology Practice, a companion journal of Clinical Neurophysiology. AUDIENCE: Neurologists, Clinical Neurophysiologists, Neuroscientists, Neuroimagers, Psychiatrists, Neuropsychologists, Neurosurgeons
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.