Филист, Гелорис и возникновение союза италиотов в начале IV в. до н. э.
The author examines evidences of Diodorus’ «Library of History» concerning the political situation in South Italy in the early IV century B. C. One of the most important persons in this narrative is Heloris, who was the adoptive father of Dionysios the Elder. The main source for activity of the person seems to be Philistus’ book «Peri Dionysiou». The historian tried to represent Heloris as the enemy of the Syracusan tyrant and the creator of the Italiote League. It seems that Philistus, describing the character of the league from the military point of view only, missed the other features of the Italiote political unity.
The joint military action of the Rhegians and Messenians against the Syracusan tyrant Dionysius I in 399 BC, described by Diodorus Siculus in his «Library of History» (XIV, 40), is discussed. Some details in his account give a chance to suggest that both poleis were probably allied with each other being members of a symmachia. It seems that several basic principles of this unity were applied later in the process of formation of the Italiote League. The participation of Rhegium in this league and activity of the Syracusan exile Heloris make their usage possible in view of opposing threats from Dionysius I and the Lucanians.
The origin of Diodorus' evidences (XIV, 109; XV, 7) on Olympic embassy of Dionysius I, a tyrant of Syracuse, is discussed. The author argues that the both texts go back to Philistus' narrative of the event and that the differences between them are hardly to be explained with Diodorus' using of Timaean and Ephorean accounts. It seems that Timaeus rewrote the original story of Philistus in antityrannical sense and provided it with some doubtful details, and Diodorus in his work fell under influence of his tale, but nevertheless preserved earlier version as well. Moreover, the date of the embassy is under question also.
The author makes an attempt to detect the sources used by Diodorus for his account of Sicilian affairs in Bibliotheca historica XIII, 85-96. For that purpose he analyses the image of Dexippus, a Spartan mercenary commander, that appeared in this part of Diodorus’ narrative. The main features of the character seem to be negative and simultaneously similar to the Timaean depiction of the another Spartan, Gylippus. The author argues that the denigration of Dexippus in Diodorus’ text was intentional and that it went back to Timaeus’ view of Dexippus.