The role of gastronomic brands in tourist destination promotion: The case of St. Petersburg
This article focuses on a significant component of tourist destination attractiveness, namely, territorial gastronomic branding. Some destinations boast a specific gastronomic brand, while others do not have a clearly defined ‘gastronomic face’. Moreover, some territories lack the 'food basis' or unique gastronomic resources, such as a brand product or local cuisine, for creating such a brand. The authors undertook an investigation of whether a territorial gastronomic brand can be formed when a region lacks a definite ‘food basis'. What is the basis for creating a regional gastronomic brand (RGB)? Does the ‘food basis’ always form the nucleus of a gastronomic brand? Or within the framework of the experience economy, is a ‘nonculinary’, 'non-food' addition sufficient for creating an RGB? The authors argue that the basis for a gastronomic brand can be traced to the cultural and historic traditions of the region. The authors focus on possible ways of forming gastronomic brands in multicultural cosmopolitan cities where authentic gastronomic brands are blurred to a great extent. Specifically, the research focuses on St. Petersburg, which is a prototypical multicultural city lacking a pure ‘food basis' for forming a territorial gastronomic brand.
This paper reports on the research that analyses the key components of gastronomic brands as a means of enhancing the attractiveness of a tourist destination. Regional gastronomic Russian brands are studied to define the role that gastronomic brands play in a territory’s attractiveness. Then, the peculiarities of regional gastronomic brand formation in multicultural cities are examined. The authors identify methods of forming gastronomic brands based on the region’s cultural traditions.
In recent years there has been a significant growth of interest in regional gastronomic brands. In this chapter the authors analyse the structure, content and individual characteristics of the gastronomic industry as a key component of a regional tourism product. The apparent interest in this gastronomic component stems from tourists’ desire to obtain a deeper understanding of the specificities of the area they are visiting, and to diversify and intensify the impressions garnered on their trips.
The purpose of this chapter therefore is to discover if it is possible to create a gastronomic brand for a territory that lacks a pronounced local cuisine, and to define the foundations and the specific ways in which such a brand might be created. We take St. Petersburg, Russia, as a test case for considering the possible methods of gastronomic brand formation under the conditions of multiculturalism and the lack of a well-defined local cuisine.
Currently, the role of gastronomy in promoting St. Petersburg as a tourist destination is negligible. The search for a gastronomic brand is based on the underlying principles of place branding and recognition of the crucial role that branding plays in creating a tourist image of a territory. This search is also based on research concerning the gastronomic component of the tourist product and an analysis of the motivational factors underpinning gastronomic services targeted at tourists.
St. Petersburg is one of the largest tourist centres in Europe. Largely because of the world-famous cultural image of the city, the level of development and promotion of St. Petersburg’s entire branding as a tourist destination is considerably superior to a gastronomic brand alone. However, the image of a particular location cannot be considered to be complete without a gastronomic component. The effect of gastronomic branding as an instrument to promote a location on the international tourism market should not be underestimated.
However, in the case of St. Petersburg, the gastronomic component of its tourist brand is not clearly defined and does not by itself attract tourists to the city.
This chapter is organised as follows. In the section Theoretical Framework, the authors examine the following: the connection between gastronomy and tourism; the idiosyncrasies of the gastronomic experience of tourists; the fundamental principles of regional branding; and the characteristics of gastronomic branding of destinations.
The section Data and Methodology contains a description of the methodology employed for conducting an stakeholder interview, the criteria under which the stakeholder were selected, and the components of the main stakeholder groups.
In the section Findings, the authors present the key results of the stakeholder survey and the answers to the following questions: How do the stakeholders evaluate the relevance and the prospects of gastronomic brand formation? Do the stakeholders consider gastronomic brand formation in St. Petersburg to be possible on the basis of its cultural and historic heritage? The most important part of the survey was the determination of the basic elements and the specific ways of creating a gastronomic brand for St. Petersburg (on the basis of stakeholders opinions).
Following on from this, we then conducted a series of in-depth expert interviews in order to collect more details to describe the major components of a St. Petersburg gastronomic brand. The authors distinguished four components of the city’s gastronomic brand creation.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
портовый менеджмент, показатели деятельности, анализ эффективности, система учета, распределение издержек, методы анализа деятельности портовой системы
At present many industries reveal tendency for setting up of vertically integrated companies (VIC) the structure of which unites all technological processes. This tendency proved its efficiency in oil industry where coordination of all successive stages of technological process, namely, oil prospecting and production -oil transportation - oil processing - oil chemistry - oil products and oil chemicals marketing, is necessary. The article considers specific features of introduction of "personnel management" module at enterprises of oil and gas industry.
vertically integrated companies; personnel management