The concept of city brand equity has caught attention of many marketing scholars, but because of complex nature of cities it remains one of the difficult concepts to quantify. In this article, we develop an approach to measuring city brand equity by evaluating city quality. According to signalling theory, city branding is the signal for consumers that communicates the city quality. The signal credibility creates city brand equity. This cannot be measured directly but can be evaluated through the city quality, which, in turn, represents the ability to fulfil residents’ needs. This study uses the conjoint analysis technique to measure city quality as a driver of consumer-based city brand equity. The approach is applied to the case of city branding campaign in Perm, Russia, to examine the roots of the city’s brand failure and propose the ways to strengthen consumer-based city brand equity.
Governments sponsor student-mobility programs with the expectation that students will build a more favorable and informed opinion of the host country which, in turn, will determine more favorable behavior towards the host country. Nevertheless, assessments of this logic are rare. Based on a survey of the Korean Government Scholarship Program’s alumni (n = 579), we analyze the alumni’s country image of South Korea and how this image determines their relationship maintenance behavior with South Korean people. Our findings show that the KGSP alumni’s image of South Korea partly explains the variance in their personal and professional relationship maintenance with South Koreans. Our findings show that the alumni’s emotions about South Korea influence their personal relationship maintenance behavior more than does each of the cognitive dimensions of the country image, while the functional dimension, which evaluates their beliefs about the country’s competencies and the competitiveness of its economic and political systems, has the highest influence on the alumni’s professional relationship maintenance.
This article focuses on a significant component of tourist destination attractiveness, namely, territorial gastronomic branding. Some destinations boast a specific gastronomic brand, while others do not have a clearly defined ‘gastronomic face’. Moreover, some territories lack the 'food basis' or unique gastronomic resources, such as a brand product or local cuisine, for creating such a brand. The authors undertook an investigation of whether a territorial gastronomic brand can be formed when a region lacks a definite ‘food basis'. What is the basis for creating a regional gastronomic brand (RGB)? Does the ‘food basis’ always form the nucleus of a gastronomic brand? Or within the framework of the experience economy, is a ‘nonculinary’, 'non-food' addition sufficient for creating an RGB? The authors argue that the basis for a gastronomic brand can be traced to the cultural and historic traditions of the region. The authors focus on possible ways of forming gastronomic brands in multicultural cosmopolitan cities where authentic gastronomic brands are blurred to a great extent. Specifically, the research focuses on St. Petersburg, which is a prototypical multicultural city lacking a pure ‘food basis' for forming a territorial gastronomic brand.