On Big Cycles in Development of Global Capitalism
Following the literature on variety of capitalism, this chapter discusses the general trends in the evolution of models of capitalism with special focus on developmental state as specific form of organized capitalism. Key advantages, drivers, and challenges of the current liberal phase of global capitalism are considered. Attention is paid to the contradictions between opportunistic incentives of global market players and limits of national-level organized capitalism. The necessity of new global governance mechanisms is argued. However, such mechanisms of global governance can emerge only in response to serious threats for the global order. New ideas for development shared by elites and broader social groups in major developed and developing countries is another crucial precondition for emergence of new global governance architecture to foster international cooperation in response to all challenges faced by humankind now.
The 2012 G8 summit, hosted by US president Barack Obama at the presidential retreat of Camp David in Maryland on 18-19 May, promises to be a particularly significant event. It takes place in the political lead-up to the US presidential election in November 2012, and is being held in tandem with a summit of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Chicago on 20-21 May.
The summit will feature a full-strength agenda, including a global economy struggling to generate growth and jobs, delivery of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as the due date of 2015 moves closer, and security in troubled regions and countries where the G8’s core mission of promoting democracy and reform is acutely at stake.
The G8 Camp David Summit publication features articles by German chancellor Angela Merkel and Canadian prime minister Stephen Harper on the key issues that will be under discussion.
For the past 37 years, the annual G8 summits have generated a wide breadth of declarations and communiqués binding the leaders to hard commitments across a diverse range of global policy issues. The extent to which the G8 members comply with their annual commitments has, in recent years, become a hotly contested topic, pitting academics, politicians, policy wonks and newsmakers against each other in an effort to understand whether commitments by the G8 do, in fact, matter. Given this era of ongoing domestic political constraints and conflicting global demands, does the G8 have the ability and, indeed, the capacity not only to make, but also to keep the commitments its members collectively generate at their annual summits?
В статье проводится анализ деятельности ЕС по предоставлению помощи беднейшим странам в развитии энергетики на основе функционального подхода. Автор определяет подход ЕС путем оценки реализации функции исполнение на основе анализа исполнения обязательств «Группы восьми» по содействию развивающимся странам в развитии сектора энергетики. Анализ проведен на основе оценки обязательств по четырем сферам, таким как обеспечение доступа развивающихся стран к современным источникам энергии, развитие чистых видов энергетики, устойчивое управление природными энергетическими ископаемыми, защита окружающей среды. Для обеспечения взвешенной оценки автор сопоставляет исполнение обязательств ЕС с исполнением этих обязательств США (традиционным донором) и Россией (новым донором). В заключении автор дает некоторые рекомендации для Российской Федерации, касающиеся повышения эффективности помощи развивающимся странам в секторе энергетики.
The world’s financial crisis made worth an effort to rethink the existing model of global economic governance. One of the striking things among the others – is the insufficient level of global financial regulation. Experts do not share a common view on the functioning of the system. Some of them consider the system of global governance was not ready to react to the new challenges and to sustain the pressure of critical events. Others will defend the system, admitting that only some slight changes into it would make possible to cope with the current problems. The truth, as very often, is probably somewhere in between. The necessity to modify the pattern of functioning of the global financial institutions is clear. The institutions themselves should be made more viable and efficient and their competences to manage different aspects of global economy should be substantially enlarged. How useful could an EU experience be in achieving the new global governance goals?