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AnnArbor: Approximate Nearest Neighbors Using Arborescence Coding

P. 4885-4893.
Babenko A., Lempitsky V.

To compress large datasets of high-dimensional descriptors, modern quantization schemes learn multiple codebooks and then represent individual descriptors as combinations of codewords. Once the codebooks are learned, these schemes encode descriptors independently. In contrast to that, we present a new coding scheme that arranges dataset descriptors into a set of arborescence graphs, and then encodes non-root descriptors by quantizing their displacements with respect to their parent nodes. By optimizing the structure of arborescences, our coding scheme can decrease the quantization error considerably, while incurring only minimal overhead on the memory footprint and the speed of nearest neighbor search in the compressed dataset compared to the independent quantization. The advantage of the proposed scheme is demonstrated in a series of experiments with datasets of SIFT and deep descriptors.