Healthcare systems: Future predictions for global care
By the eighteenth century, medicine was grappling with rapidly expanding knowledge and technologies (Williams, 2000). So that multiple standards of care for the same condition were not in conict, specialties based on physician affinity developed out of generalist practice. By the late twentieth century, nations diverged in a number of specialties earning official recognition, but a singular trend of growth in specialization was unchanged. Specialization may seem to be ornamentation that denotes technical prowess and knowledge advancement, but it is essential in that it alters workforce self-organization and delivery of care, and channels patients into more finely distinguished pathways of care.* Specialization legitimates medical professionalism in the public eye, especially when physicians validate the importance of generalists. In 1999, major medical organizations promulgated a “Charter on Medical Professionalism” that espoused professionals, including specialists, as activists in healthcare reform.
Free education, public heath care and social benefits that had been a fact of life for decades in the Soviet Union have now become an object of deep nostalgia for many people, especially the elderly. Social services enveloped Soviet society, controlling the activity and thoughts of people for more than 70 years. The state and its various agents carried out this double-faced task of care and control at all levels of social life, moving gradually from tough and selective schemes of social security and insurance to the “bright future” of a communist welfare state. The development of Soviet social policy followed the ideological formulae common in many industrial countries during the modernisation period. Our aim in this study was to use the forms taken by everyday life and the modern subject in the Soviet Union as a way to call into question our own certainty about how these phenomena work. Social care and social control practices were carried out by different professional and quasi-professional assistants—educators in youth and children’s cultural centres and clubs, activists in women’s organisations and trade unions, teachers at schools and educators in kindergartens and orphanages, nurses and visiting nurses at polyclinics, and officials of domestic affairs departments. The population viewed the government and its agents as the source of both well-being and trouble. This article focuses on social policy during the first decades of the “Republic of Labour” when the ideology of care and control was established in accordance with the demands of industrial growth, formulating particular definitions of normality and deviance. In this quest for normality, classifications of worthy and unworthy behaviour and activities were established, and the rhetoric distinguishing “us” and “them” intensified. We show how egalitarian social and democratic principles existed alongside conservative stratification guidelines without contradiction, and how the rhetoric of social care varied dramatically from its practical implementation.
Global health is a rapidly emerging discipline with a transformative potential for public policy and international development. Emphasizing transnational health issues, global health aims to improve health and achieve health equity for all people worldwide. Its multidisciplinary scope includes contributions from many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences, including clinical medicine, public health, social and behavioral sciences, environmental sciences, economics, public policy, law and ethics.
This large reference will offer up-to-date information and expertise across all aspects of global health and will help readers achieve a truly multidisciplinary understanding of the driving forces, dynamics, and models in healthcare, as well as the biological, clinical, socioeconomic and environmental drivers impacting global health disorders and challenges.
As a fully comprehensive, state-of-the-art reference that can be updated periodically, over time, as the data and drivers change, Global Health will be an important, dynamic resource to provide context for global health clinical care, organizational and state decision-making, and overall public policy on many levels. Physicians (both research and practice-oriented), trainees, medical students, health economists, environmental scientists, social scientists from a range of disciplines working in the field of health and illness (both practitioners and at the university / graduate program level), public policy and law students and professionals, and allied health trainees and practitioners will find this work of great value.
В главе приводится детальный анализ региональных различий в придолжительности жизни и смертности по причинам смерти в России за последние 20 лет. На фоне региональных различий также рассмотрены особенности здоровья населния крупных городов России. В заключении приводится интегральная оценка состояния здоровья населения регионов России.
Сборник материалов Международной научно-практическая конференция IX Левитовские чтения. «Особенности исследований в психологической, педагогической практике и социальной работе». 23-24 апреля 2014 года, Москва, МГОУ
This prototype development explains the challenges encountered during the ISO/IEEE 11073 standard implementation process. The complexity of the standard and the consequent heavy requirements, which have not encouraged software engineers to adopt the standard. The developing complexity evaluation drives us to propose two possible implementation strategies that cover almost all possible use cases and eases handling the standard by non-expert users. The first one is focused on medical devices (MD) and proposes a low-memory and low-processor usage technique. It is based on message patterns that allow simple functions to generate ISO/IEEE 11073 messages and to process them easily. MD act as X73 agent. Second one is focused on more powerful device X73 manager, which do not have the MDs' memory and processor usage constraints. The protocol between Agent and Manager is point-to-point and we can distribute the functionality between devices.
Developed both implementation X73 Agent and Manager will cut developing time for applications based on ISO/EEE 11073.
В статье анализируются концептуальные подходы к планированию кадров здравоохранения. Выделяются главные диспропорции в составе врачебных ресурсов. Представлена количественная оценка влияния структурных сдвигов в системе оказания медицинской помощи на общую потребность во врачебных кадрах. Формулируются главные направления кадровой политики, нацеленные на преодоление дефицита врачей.
Главные выводы: 1) имеющаяся численность врачей может быть достаточной для удовлетворения потребностей населения в медицинской помощи при условии проведения серьезных преобразований в структуре медицинской помощи и составе кадров отрасли; 2) политика экстенсивного наращивания числа врачей бесперспективна.
В спектре внутренней медицины гастроэнтерология является одной из наименее освещенных научными доказательствами областей. Это не означет, однако, что еe практика не может быть усовершенствована последовательным использованием подходов доказательной медицины