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Статья

Characteristics of the Russian Lower Class

Russian Education and Society. 2011. Vol. 53. No. 12. P. 3-28.
Lower socioeconomic strata in Russia have their origins in both the former Soviet lower strata and economic decline of the 1990s. Part of the reason for their persistence is the geographic mismatch between jobs and the labor supply, in addition to lack of education, skills, and social support. The situation cannot be solved by just providing transfer payments.