Статья представляет собой англоязычное издание статьи, опубликованной во 2-м номере журнала «Общественные науки и современность» за 2011 г. Авторы рассматривают процессы социальной мобильности в двух аспектах, выделяя советский этап, продолжительность которого давала довольно большую накопленную практику для осмысления проблем восходящей/нисходящей мобильности, а также опыт последних полутора десятилетий, когда стало постепенно складываться (и к настоящему моменту, вероятно, во многом уже сложилось) новое российское общество, характерологические особенности которого сегодня стали предметом многочисленных дискуссий.
The structure of Russians' life course has never been studied in depth; the only exception is demographic studies regarding marital status and age at childbirth. Principles that define life trajectories should also be examined. The “adult” concept is one of a number of important concepts in the general structure of life planning. This article presents an agenda for future research based on several case studies obtained during a longitudinal study of educational and occupational trajectories. Studying the transition into adulthood is an important resource for understanding the modern times. However, another option is also possible. This concept of transition into adulthood can also be considered as a phenomenon of contemporary culture. The research perspective of cultural sociology, whose methodology is described as structural hermeneutics, can serve these purposes. Structural hermeneutics refers to an analysis of the structure of senses both intersubjective and collectively shared. It is important to analyze how the adult concept is used with regard to the structure of the life course in materials from Russian studies, with account for the ambivalence of this concept and research conducted in other countries.
This paper reviews some government policy measures aimed at strengthening competition in the Russian university market and looks at the best international practices in this area. It analyzes the competitive behavior of universities under the current government policy on higher education and research and development and suggests an approach to assessing the efficiency of government stimulation of competition among universities and to predicting the outcomes of applying existing stimulation tools. This paper presents the results of assessing the current level of competition in the Russian university market using a nonstructural method, an adjusted Panzar-Rosse competition assessment model. We used the value of grants received by universities as part of government orders as one of the model factors and also analyzed the effects of other factors describing the size, entrance requirements, and research activities of universities. This article investigates how university income depends on the value of grants received (a ratio of total income to the size of grants) and on the number of students and teachers. The level of competition in this market is characterized by the elasticity of the total income of an average university based on the value of grants received.
Researchers of the traditional higher education system identify a number of factors affecting admission to a university (barriers to entry) and factors of its successful completion (barriers to exit). Massive open online courses (MOOCs), available to any Internet user, remove barriers to entry because anyone can study there. But do all students have an equal chance of successful completion of the online course? Do the same barriers to exit exist for MOOCs? Binary logistic regression was used to determine the way that factors related to each student's individual features affect the successful completion of online courses. This study was based on administrative data from the Coursera platform across four courses offered by the NRU HSE from February to June 2014. The results of this analysis show that there is a strong correlation between successful completion of online courses and educational experience. The probability of successful completion is higher among men with higher education who have already taken online courses and studied similar disciplines.
О бизнес-образовании в России: характеристики нового поколения предпринимателей.
The authors examine how the social status of the university professor has evolved in Russia in recent centuries in light of the historical concepts about the enslavement and emancipation of social groups proposed by Sergey Solovyov and Aleksandr Gradovsky. They use the metaphor of the “slave” [nevol’nik] to describe the dependent position of the professor in the university. The word encapsulates administrative tyranny, the spread of subordinate and submissive mentality in the university environment, and the curtailment of opportunities for professional selffulfillment. The authors present the university administration as the main agent responsible for enslaving professors. Administrators represent bureaucratic power and act to advance their own social ambitions.