Potassium channel blocker crafted by ɑ-hairpinin scaffold engineering
Molecular-level knowledge of the thermodynamic, structural, and transport properties of water confined by interfaces and nanopores of various materials is crucial for quantitative understanding and prediction of many natural and technological processes, including carbon sequestration, water desalination, nuclear waste storage, cement chemistry, fuel cell technology, etc. Computational molecular modeling is capable to significantly complement the experimental investigations of such systems by providing invaluable atomic-scale information leading to improved understanding of the specific effects of the substrate structure and composition on the structure, dynamics and reactivity of interfacial and nano-confined aqueous solutions. This paper offers a brief overview of recent efforts to quantify some of these effects for individual H2O molecules and hydrated ions confined at the interfaces and in nanopores of several typical hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials. The first molecular layer of aqueous solution at all substrates is often highly ordered, indicating reduced translational and orientational mobility of the H2O molecules. This ordering cannot be simply described as “ice-like”, but rather resembles the behavior of supercooled water or amorphous ice, although with very significant substrate-specific variations.
In this work, we perform coexistence simulations of methane hydrates for pressures up to 5000 bar for different water models. We calculate the kinetic stability boundary of the superheated metastable sI structure and analyze the effects of the heating rate, system size and cage occupancy. We also report molecular dynamics simulation of several possible structuresfor the new hydrogen hydrate clathrate. We show the strength of molecular simulation as a supplement tool for the analysis of experimental data. © 2015 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cooling of tokamak boundary plasma owing to radiation of non-fully stripped lithium ions is considered as a promising way for protection of plasma facing elements (PFE) in tokamak. It may be effectively realized when the main part of lithium ions are involved in the closed circuit of migration between plasma and PFE surface. Such an approach may be implemented with the use of lithium device whose hot (500-600 °C) area to be effected by plasma serves as a Li-emitter and the cold part (∼180 °C) as a Li-collector in the shadow. Capillary-pore system (CPS) provides the returning of collected and condensed lithium to emitting zone by capillary forces. The main goals of the last T-11M lithium experiments were investigating Li ions transport in the tokamak scrape of layer (SOL) and their collecting by different kinds of limiters. The design of devices based on lithium CPS with different ratio of emitting/collecting area is the main subject of this paper. © 2015 The Authors.
Сборник подготовлен к юбилею доктора исторических наук Ирины Геннадиевны Коноваловой, зам. директора, главного научного сотрудника, зав. Отделом специальных исторических дисциплин и зав. Центром исторической географии Института всеобщей истории РАН, крупнейшего в нашей стране востоковеда, автора большого числа исследований и публикаций источников, выдающегося специалиста в области исторической географии, ответственного редактора недавно организованного ею альманаха "Историческая география". В сборник вошли статьи ее коллег и друзей, написанные по следующим направлениям: историческая география, гуманитарная и культурная география, история географии и картографии.
Для историков, географов, филологов.
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
Сборник статей по проблемам ООПТ.
В сборник Трудов МОО включены избранные материалы XIII Международной орнитологической конференции Северной Евразии, состоявшейся в г. Оренбурге 30 апреля - 6 мая 2010 г. Тематика статей касается истории Мензбировского орнитологического общества и палеоорнитологии, общих проблем орнитологии, фауны и систематики птиц, их экологии и эволюции, а также вопросов охраны редких видов. Среди информационных материалов публикуется Резолюция XIII Орнитологической конференции Северной Евразии
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (NNRs) of the α7 subtype have been shown to contribute to the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. The site of action and the underlying mechanism, however, are unclear. Here we applied a circuit modeling approach, supported by electrochemical in vivo recordings, to clarify this issue. Modeling revealed two potential mechanisms for the drop in accumbal dopamine efflux evoked by the selective α7 partial agonist TC-7020. TC-7020 could desensitize α7 NNRs located predominantly on dopamine neurons or glutamatergic afferents to them or, alternatively, activate α7 NNRs located on the glutamatergic afferents to GABAergic interneurons in the ventral tegmental area. Only the model based on desensitization, however, was able to explain the neutralizing effect of coapplied PNU-120596, a positive allosteric modulator. According to our results, the most likely sites of action are the preterminal α7 NNRs controlling glutamate release from cortical afferents to the nucleus accumbens. These findings offer a rationale for the further investigation of α7 NNR agonists as therapy for diseases associated with enhanced mesolimbic dopaminergic tone, such as schizophrenia and addiction