Public-Private Partnership Models for Science, Technology, and Innovation Cooperation
The paper looks at cooperation models for science, technology, and innovation with clear aims at delivering value and progress in these fields. Such cooperation models have been established in various forms in many countries. One special form of cooperation is the public-private partnership which also comes in many different forms. The article is based on the analysis of 20 public-private partnerships located in Austria, Australia, Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden, and The Netherlands. Public-private partnerships for science, technology, and innovation have various institutional and organizational models. The common central issue of all different models is an interdisciplinary management committee consisting of both academic and industrial representatives which is responsible for the alignment of all partners’ interests. In addition, public-private partnerships need carefully developed strategies and well-thought-out contractual basis in line with respective stakeholder communication. Frequently, public-private partnerships are established by a small number of partners but extended at later development stages requiring a seamless and transparent partner selection procedure. Equally important is a sustainable financial agreement which allows mid-term and long-term work by the public-private partnerships. Moreover, in the course of globalization, the regulatory requirements for public-private partnerships in countries and regions are becoming increasingly important. Therefore, in addition to statutory regulations, human resources, scientific excellence, and infrastructure are important determinants for locations which aim at providing attractive framework conditions for public-private partnerships. Finally, it must be noted that two different research cultures meet in public-private partnerships: Synergies have to be found between basic academic research and applied industrial research, and they have to be used for mutual added value. Before establishing public-private partnerships formally, particular attention must be paid to so-called competing values. These must be regulated in a contract, and transparent control and sanction mechanisms must be introduced. In so doing, the mistrust associated with divergent interests (for example in relation to intellectual property rights) can be effectively prevented from the outset.